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Tobias Dalhaus and Robert Finger

certain accumulation period, are used as underlying of the index [see, e.g., Leblois and Quirion (2013) for an overview]. In this example, a payout occurs if a strike level of the underlying precipitation value is undercut or exceeded, depending on the contract design. To allow for the efficient reduction of on-farm losses, the chosen index must adequately describe on-farm results ( Woodard and Garcia 2008 ). The remaining basis risk—that is, the discrepancy between the losses experienced by the

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Martin J. Murphy and Ronald L. Holle

. These results may be contrasted with lightning climatologies taken from two low Earth-orbiting satellites, the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) ( Christian et al. 2003 ; Cecil et al. 2014 ), as well as the ground-based global lightning dataset GLD360 ( Said et al. 2013 , their Figs. 4a and 5a). These satellite- and ground-based climatologies show that the overall lightning maximum resides over land and extends well northward into Sonora and the U.S. states of

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B. S. Felzer, Carol R. Ember, R. Cheng, and M. Jiang

−1 , respectively (mean T + = 0.78 for R20S and 0.72 for R10S), whereas other indices performed relatively poorly, suggesting that the ability to hindcast flooding may be associated with some antecedent soil moisture conditions. We further explore this by using a process-based land surface model (TEM) to include soil moisture conditions ( Fig. S4 of the online supplemental material). TEM is a prognostically based numerical model of biogeochemical processes between vegetation, soils, and the

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Felicia O. Akinyemi

perception of and adaptation to climate change in Africa. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4308, 53 pp. [Available online at .] 10.1596/1813-9450-4308 Mashame , G. , and F. O. Akinyemi , 2016 : Towards a remote sensing based assessment of land susceptibility to degradation: Examining seasonal variation in land use–land cover for modelling land degradation in a semi-arid context . ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. , 3 , 137 – 144 . 10

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Duncan Cook and Sally Garrett

recent maritime piracy. For a myriad of political and commercial reasons, both governments and industry downplay and underestimate the scale of modern maritime piracy. The International Maritime Bureau ( IMB 2011 ), for example, estimates that as many as half of all pirate attacks are unreported. Somali pirates typically attack using two or more small, high-speed open boats or “skiffs.” By using larger vessels, or “mother ships,” pirates can greatly extend the distance from land that skiff attacks

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Lynda E. Chambers, Roan D. Plotz, Siosinamele Lui, Faapisa Aiono, Tile Tofaeono, David Hiriasia, Lloyd Tahani, ‘Ofa Fa’anunu, Seluvaia Finaulahi, and Albert Willy

for some countries and regions, for example, Australia ( Mondragón 2014 ; ; ), there remain significant gaps in where these calendars occur and in the level of detail provided. Differences between calendars can include the number of seasons into which the year is divided and the plants and animals used to mark the change of seasons. National Meteorological Services (NMSs) in

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Michael Robert Nkuba, Raban Chanda, Gagoitseope Mmopelwa, Margaret Najjingo Mangheni, David Lesolle, and Edward Kato

. Magole , and D. Kgathi , 2012 : Indigenous knowledge and land use policy: Implications for livelihoods of flood recession farming communities in the Okavango Delta, Botswana . Phys. Chem. Earth , 50–52 , 185 – 195 , . 10.1016/j.pce.2012.09.013 Mpandeli , S. , and P. Maponya , 2013 : The use of climate forecasts information by farmers in Limpopo Province, South Africa . J. Agric. Sci. , 5 , 47 – 55 ,

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Daniel Leppert, Tobias Dalhaus, and Carl-Johan Lagerkvist

.1016/j.apgeog.2013.07.012 . 10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.07.012 Yang , J. S. , Y. Q. Wang , and P. V. August , 2004 : Estimation of land surface temperature using spatial interpolation and satellite-derived surface emissivity . J. Environ. Inform. , 4 , 37 – 44 , . 10.3808/jei.200400035 1 In the U.S. federal crop insurance program, area yield index insurances (Area Risk Protection Insurance; https

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Emma Austin, Anthony S. Kiem, Jane Rich, David Perkins, and Brian Kelly

the situation is the confusion between the causes, impacts, and risks of drought ( Kiem et al. 2016 ). Understanding drought is a topic of ongoing research, with advances being made in defining and categorizing drought ( Peterson et al. 2013 ; Van Loon 2015 ). Five commonly used drought categories are summarized below ( Heim 2002 ; Van Loon 2015 ; Kiem et al. 2016 ): Meteorological drought is caused by atmospheric conditions that result in a precipitation deficit. It occurs over several months

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Kendal McGuffie and Ann Henderson-Sellers

appeals to other parts of the Empire for supplies: the First Fleet Captain, Governor Arthur Phillip, sent to South Africa for more provisions in May 1789 and Governor Macquarie ordered 250 tons of wheat from Bengal “to avert a famine” in December 1814. Early settlers searched river estuaries north and west of Sydney Cove to locate good land to farm but anecdotal evidence suggests that meticulous weather observations were not used (e.g., McAfee 1981 ). The Parramatta River was explored by Arthur

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