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Michael Sprenger, Heini Wernli, and Michel Bourqui

match fairly well. The absolute maxima are found for both climatologies over the Mediterranean/Eastern European sector, although with STT slightly shifted to the southwest relative to SPV. Such a shift might be expected since exchange often takes place at the southwestern tip of SPV (see section 5 ). Secondary maxima over the eastern Pacific and western United States also match well. Figure 1 also suggests a substantial regional variability in the link between SPV and STT. For instance, a

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Jerome Namias and Philip F. Clapp

is an accumulation of air to the north of the axis and a deficitto the south. In a manner similar to the sea-breezecirculation, a compensating flow from north to southtakes place at lower elevations. Continuity considerations then require sinking motion in the cold airnorth of the axis and rising motion in the warm airto the south. The appearance of this circulation,caused by the `unbalance' of pressure gradient andCoriolis forces, is indicated schematically in fig. 4,which shows a vertical

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Kelly Lombardo and Tristan Kading

1. Introduction Coastal and offshore regions are frequently impacted by mesoscale convective systems organized into lines of deep convective cells that initiate and mature over land. These storms, known as squall lines, occur in coastal regions ubiquitously across the globe, including the eastern United States ( Heymsfield et al. 1999 ; Lombardo and Colle 2012 , 2013 ), Mediterranean ( Kömüşçü et al. 1998 ; van Delden 1998 ; Cohuet et al. 2011 ), China and South China Sea ( Wang and Carey

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Brian D. Gross

lee cyclogenesis: verification of theories. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 2187-2203.Elliasen, A., 1959: On the formation of fronts in the atmosphere. The Atmosphere and Sea in Motion. Rockefeller Institute Press, 277-287.Gill, A. E., 1982: Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics. Academic Press, 662 pp.Gross, B. D., and W. Blumen, 1988: Semi-geostrophic flow over orography in a stratified rotating atmosphere. Part II: Some as pects of nonuni~ormflow over an isolated obstacle. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 3003

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Ronald B. Smith, Arthur C. Gleason, Paul A. Gluhosky, and Vanda Grubišić

., 41, 157–164. Fett, R. W., and K. M. Rabe, 1976: Island barrier effects on sea state as revealed by a numerical wave model and DMSP satellite data. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 324–334. ——, and R. G. Isaacs, 1979: Concerning causes of anomalous gray shades in DMSP visible imagery. J. Appl. Meteor., 18, 1340–1351. ——, and W. A. Bohan, 1981: Navy Tactical Applications Guide, Vol. 3, North Atlantic and Mediterranean. NEPRF Tech. Rep. 80-07, 250 pp. ——, and S. D. Burk, 1981: Island barrier

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M. Segal, R. Avissar, M. C. McCumber, and R. A. Pielke

example, the San Joaquin andSacramento Valleys, and the area adjacent to the SaltonSea in California; the eastern plains of WashingtonState; and the Snake River area in Idaho. Along theNile River in Egypt and the Sudan, vegetated areasreach in some locations 30 to 40 km in width, with aneven larger extent at the Nile Delta where the riverempties into the Mediterranean Sea. The Lake Chadbasin in Africa becomes vegetated during, the fallmonths, generating surface IR temperature contrastsreaching 14-C

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Emily Shuckburgh, Francesco d’Ovidio, and Bernard Legras

, and H. G. J. Smit , 1999 : A mechanism for moistening the lower stratosphere involving the Asian summer monsoon. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 125B , 1079 – 1106 . DeWeaver , E. , and S. Nigam , 2000 : Do stationary waves drive the zonal-mean jet anomalies of the northern winter? J. Climate , 13 , 2160 – 2176 . d’Ovidio , F. , V. Fernández , E. Hernández-García , and C. López , 2004 : Mixing structures in the Mediterranean Sea from finite-size Lyapunov exponents

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Anandu D. Vernekar and Hyo Duck Chang

sea surface temperature anomalies, deforestation, and glacial or interglacialconditions.YK~KvS~'a~'~xPI~ It'> 2. List of symbols X longitudeq0 latitudep pressuret t/meh geopotential heightu eastward wind speedv northward wind speed~o vertical p-velocity [= dp/dt-]T temperatureo densityq' rate of heat addition per unit massg acceleration of gravity- geopotential I-= gh-]a radius of the earthR gas constant of aircv specific heat of air at constant pressuref Coriolis parameter 'f, wdue off

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Elmar R. Reiter

midlatitude planetary-waveresponse is strongest when North Pacific cold sea-surface temperature anomalies and equatorial East Pacificwarm anomalies are present simultaneously. The planetary-wave pattern associated with equatorial Pacific precipitation surges appears to be in phasewith orographically generated wave patterns, whereas an anomalous low-latitude heat source over the extremeequatorial west Pacific, the Bay of Bengal and India, corresponding to rainfall during an active phase of theIndian

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Mingyu Park and Sukyoung Lee

Greenland and cooling over northern Canada and the Norwegian Sea. The North Pacific heating leads to warming over a broad swath of area poleward of 50°N, ranging from northern North America to Scandinavia, and cooling over eastern Siberia and much of the contiguous United States ( Fig. 7b ). Figure 7c shows that the North Atlantic heating results in warming (cooling) over the Barents–Kara Seas and northern Europe (eastern Greenland and the Mediterranean Sea). Figure 7d shows the sum of the three

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