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Liping Deng, Matthew F. McCabe, Georgiy Stenchikov, Jason P. Evans, and Paul A. Kucera

-flood events over the last decade. The surface topography in the area around Jeddah increases from west to east, with high mountains on the eastern side. These mountains act as a natural barrier to passing convective storms, resulting in large rainfall bursts that occur in a short time period and flow from the foothills of these slopes directly into the city. The factors that influence such convective systems include cyclone development over the Mediterranean and anticyclone development over the Arabian

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Ayman Suleiman, Jawad Al-Bakri, Mohammad Duqqah, and Rich Crago

Suleiman 2004 ). Mediterranean: restricted to the highlands of Jordan, with altitudes ranging from 700 to 1750 m above mean sea level and mean annual rainfall ranging from 300 to 600 mm. This region supports the best natural vegetation in Jordan including forest stands. In addition to natural vegetation, rainfed cultivation of wheat and other field crops, summer crops, and orchards is practiced. Irano–Turanian (also known as steppe ): surrounds the Mediterranean region from all sides except

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Bart van den Hurk, Janneke Ettema, and Pedro Viterbo

Seneviratne et al. (2004) , who analyzed the annual cycle of terrestrial water storage in ERA-40 over the Mississippi River basin. They observed a strong damping of this annual cycle and too-high summertime soil moisture content owing to the soil moisture data assimilation. This behavior is noted for the locations spread around the midlatitude European domain away from the Mediterranean area (Spain and Italy). Douville et al. (2000) hint at an overestimation of springtime canopy transpiration owing to

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Abishek Adhikari, Chuntao Liu, and Lindsey Hayden

does not capture very light precipitation over the stratocumulus regions. Also, over the Mediterranean Sea, even though the annual precipitation rate is very low (300 mm yr −1 ), the GMI biases (~25%) are not improved. The estimated mean unconditional precipitation rate from the corrected GMI is more consistent with that of the Combined. For example, over 40°S–40°N land and ocean, the corrected GMI estimated annual precipitation rate is about 1067 mm yr −1 , which is closer to the Combined

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Álvaro González-Reyes, James McPhee, Duncan A. Christie, Carlos Le Quesne, Paul Szejner, Mariano H. Masiokas, Ricardo Villalba, Ariel A. Muñoz, and Sebastián Crespo

1. Introduction The Andes is the largest mountain chain in the Southern Hemisphere, acting as a regional “water tower” for many South American countries from the tropics to the southern tip of the continent (8°N–55°S). The Mediterranean Andes region (MA; 30°–37°S) is located in the transition between two major macroclimate regions in South America, namely, the subtropical desert Andes to the north and the wet temperate Andes to the south ( Lliboutry 1998 ). Several studies in the region have

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P. R. Berliner and K. Droppelmann

Negev: Low pressure systems in the Mediterranean basin, usually associated with an extensive cloud cover, that produce a relatively low-intensity rainfall over large areas. The Red Sea trough, typical for spring and autumn, which results in very localized rainstorms of high intensity and short duration. An additional feature that frequently affects radiation patterns during the transitional seasons in the Negev region is the chamsin—a hot, dry wind coming from either the Arabian Peninsula

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E. I. Nikolopoulos, N. S. Bartsotas, E. N. Anagnostou, and G. Kallos

satellite QPE during heavy precipitation events in a western Mediterranean mountainous area. Following the general methodological framework of Zhang et al. (2013) , the objective of this work is to investigate and demonstrate how the use of high-resolution NWP forecasts could have improved radar and satellite QPE for the 2013 Colorado flash flood event. This work expands on that of Zhang et al. (2013) in two main aspects. First, a different NWP model is applied at high (1 km) resolution and simulated

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James V. Rudolph and Katja Friedrich

Mediterranean Sea ( Frei and Schär 1998 ; Rudolph et al. 2011 ). An additional benefit of this location is the inclusion of data from the Monte Lema radar in intensive observation periods (IOPs) and subsequent analysis resulting from the 1999 MAP experiment ( Bougeault et al. 2001 ; Houze et al. 2001 ; Medina and Houze 2003 ; Yuter and Houze 2003 ; Rotunno and Houze 2007 ). Because of the difference in terrain on the north and south sides of the radar, the dataset used for this study was divided into

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Shakeel Asharaf, Andreas Dobler, and Bodo Ahrens

al. (2002) compared four atmospheric general circulation models and concluded that the coupling strength between the land surface and the atmosphere are significantly varying in the model simulations. Very recently, based on statistical analysis of multimodel ensembles, Orlowsky and Seneviratne (2010) found a remarkable coupling strength between soil moisture and precipitation for specific regions. They further compared the influence of soil moisture and sea surface temperature (SST), with the

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Liming Zhu, Junzhi Liu, A-Xing Zhu, Meiling Sheng, and Zheng Duan

) pointed out that the low-level convergence by land/sea in southern China was the main reason for the prevailing nocturnal rainfall on the windward slope of the mountainous area in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. But over large-scale mountains and adjacent plains or basins in the west and north of China, many researchers also pointed out that propagation of the diurnal rainfall peak from late afternoon to night is strongly associated with the thermally driven regional mountain–plains solenoid (MPS

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