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Zhongkun Hong, Zhongying Han, Xueying Li, Di Long, Guoqiang Tang, and Jianhua Wang

to merge high-quality precipitation data globally ( Beck et al. 2017a , 2019 ). However, the effective spatial resolution of MSWEP is relatively coarse in the TP, since the reanalysis (~80–150 km) component is the dominating component ( Beck et al. 2017a ). The Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCP) data combine high-accuracy microwave observations and more frequent geosynchronous infrared observations to provide high-spatiotemporal-resolution precipitation products ( Adler et al. 2003

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Bandar S. AlMutairi

assess PERSIANN on the State of Kuwait and its neighboring countries ( Table 1 ). Over such a hyperarid hot climate region that has a limited rain gauge density, and short-recorded gauge data, utilization of excellent SPPs would add a great value to hydrological, environmental, and water management applications. To evaluate SPPs performance, daily precipitation of these six satellite products are compared against observations over the period 2013–18 in the context of the region hyperaridity and their

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Mu Xiao, Sarith P. Mahanama, Yongkang Xue, Fei Chen, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD003174 . 10.1029/2002JD003174 Xue , Y. , B. A. Forman , and R. H. Reichle , 2018 : Estimating snow mass in North America through assimilation of advanced microwave scanning radiometer brightness temperature observations using the catchment land surface model and support vector machines . Water Resour. Res. , 54 , 6488 – 6509 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2017WR022219 . 10.1029/2017WR022219

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Sujay V. Kumar, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Ken Harrison, and Shujia Zhou

gridded parameter optimization) also relates to the spatial tradeoffs of satellite sensors, while the period of calibration relates to the satellite overpass return time. In the future, simultaneous development of Earth science technologies (e.g., microwave soil moisture sensors) and methodologies (e.g., thermal evapotranspiration retrievals) will warrant the LIS-OPT/UE approach in assessing the impact of observations on coupled forecasts for both calibration and data assimilation studies alike

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Terence J. Pagano, Duane E. Waliser, Bin Guan, Hengchun Ye, F. Martin Ralph, and Jinwon Kim

associated results, including an examination of the veracity of the results that is based on comparisons between reanalysis and satellite observations. Last AR cases within the top and bottom 25% of near-surface stability are examined in the context of understanding the associated frequency of occurrence of extreme wind speeds in ARs. We conclude in section 4 with a summary and discussion. 2. Data and methods a. AR database In this study, the Guan and Waliser (2015) global AR database is used. The

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S. Chen, P. E. Kirstetter, Y. Hong, J. J. Gourley, Y. D. Tian, Y. C. Qi, Q. Cao, J. Zhang, K. Howard, J. J. Hu, and X. W. Xue

and Diop 2003 ; Hong and Adler 2007 ; Lebel et al. 2009 ; Li et al. 2012 ; Parkes et al. 2013 ). The first space-based precipitation radar (PR) was launched aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in 1997. TRMM is a joint mission between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall. In addition to PR, other precipitation-related instruments include the TRMM Microwave

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Mostafa Tarek, François P. Brissette, and Richard Arsenault

for light rainfall and snow precipitation as well as more frequent observations over the medium and high latitudes ( Hou et al. 2014 ). GPM utilizes passive microwave sensors in addition to the infrared measurements from geostationary satellites, providing rainfall monitoring around the globe with higher spatial and temporal resolutions than the previously widely used TMPA products ( Yong et al. 2015 ). These improvements are likely to provide significant advantages for hydrometeorological studies

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Joel R. Norris, F. Martin Ralph, Reuben Demirdjian, Forest Cannon, Byron Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, J. Ryan Spackman, Simone Tanelli, and Duane E. Waliser

forced upslope due to coastal orography ( Ralph et al. 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2011 ). The importance of ARs to water supply and flood danger has motivated observational campaigns to understand the processes that increase and decrease IWV. Previous observational campaigns (e.g., Neiman et al. 2014 , 2016 ) investigated ARs over the northeastern Pacific Ocean using in situ aircraft observations and dropsondes. While satellites can report the spatial distribution of IWV, only in situ measurements can

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Haiden Mersiovsky, and Michael G. Bosilovich

artifact of the assimilated observations as multiple fields in the global water budget become more stable in MERRA-2 during the same time frame as a result of the introduction of advanced microwave radiances ( Bosilovich et al. 2017 ). Noticeably suppressed counts of ARs occur in 1985, 1988, and 2014, all years with neutral ENSO or weak La Niña conditions. There is no indication that the frequency of ARs along the Washington coast has changed over time. Fig . 2. Time series of (a) the number of ARs

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Pradeep V. Mandapaka and Edmond Y. M. Lo

The GPM mission consists of the Core Observatory ( CO ) deployed in February 2014 by NASA and JAXA, and a constellation of satellites from partner agencies. The CO mainly carries the GPM Microwave Imager and the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar, and provides high-resolution information about precipitation intensity, type, and micro and macro structures (e.g., Hou et al. 2014 ; Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2017 ). Further, the CO serves as a reference to intercalibrate observations from a

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