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Terence J. Pagano, Duane E. Waliser, Bin Guan, Hengchun Ye, F. Martin Ralph, and Jinwon Kim

associated results, including an examination of the veracity of the results that is based on comparisons between reanalysis and satellite observations. Last AR cases within the top and bottom 25% of near-surface stability are examined in the context of understanding the associated frequency of occurrence of extreme wind speeds in ARs. We conclude in section 4 with a summary and discussion. 2. Data and methods a. AR database In this study, the Guan and Waliser (2015) global AR database is used. The

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Mostafa Tarek, François P. Brissette, and Richard Arsenault

for light rainfall and snow precipitation as well as more frequent observations over the medium and high latitudes ( Hou et al. 2014 ). GPM utilizes passive microwave sensors in addition to the infrared measurements from geostationary satellites, providing rainfall monitoring around the globe with higher spatial and temporal resolutions than the previously widely used TMPA products ( Yong et al. 2015 ). These improvements are likely to provide significant advantages for hydrometeorological studies

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S. Chen, P. E. Kirstetter, Y. Hong, J. J. Gourley, Y. D. Tian, Y. C. Qi, Q. Cao, J. Zhang, K. Howard, J. J. Hu, and X. W. Xue

and Diop 2003 ; Hong and Adler 2007 ; Lebel et al. 2009 ; Li et al. 2012 ; Parkes et al. 2013 ). The first space-based precipitation radar (PR) was launched aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in 1997. TRMM is a joint mission between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall. In addition to PR, other precipitation-related instruments include the TRMM Microwave

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Joel R. Norris, F. Martin Ralph, Reuben Demirdjian, Forest Cannon, Byron Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, J. Ryan Spackman, Simone Tanelli, and Duane E. Waliser

forced upslope due to coastal orography ( Ralph et al. 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2011 ). The importance of ARs to water supply and flood danger has motivated observational campaigns to understand the processes that increase and decrease IWV. Previous observational campaigns (e.g., Neiman et al. 2014 , 2016 ) investigated ARs over the northeastern Pacific Ocean using in situ aircraft observations and dropsondes. While satellites can report the spatial distribution of IWV, only in situ measurements can

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Haiden Mersiovsky, and Michael G. Bosilovich

artifact of the assimilated observations as multiple fields in the global water budget become more stable in MERRA-2 during the same time frame as a result of the introduction of advanced microwave radiances ( Bosilovich et al. 2017 ). Noticeably suppressed counts of ARs occur in 1985, 1988, and 2014, all years with neutral ENSO or weak La Niña conditions. There is no indication that the frequency of ARs along the Washington coast has changed over time. Fig . 2. Time series of (a) the number of ARs

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Pradeep V. Mandapaka and Edmond Y. M. Lo

The GPM mission consists of the Core Observatory ( CO ) deployed in February 2014 by NASA and JAXA, and a constellation of satellites from partner agencies. The CO mainly carries the GPM Microwave Imager and the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar, and provides high-resolution information about precipitation intensity, type, and micro and macro structures (e.g., Hou et al. 2014 ; Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2017 ). Further, the CO serves as a reference to intercalibrate observations from a

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Akarsh Asoka and Vimal Mishra

observations from more than 6500 gauge stations and the inverse distance weighting method ( Pai et al. 2014 ). Gridded precipitation from the IMD is widely used for hydroclimatic studies in India ( Mishra et al. 2014 ; Shah and Mishra 2016 ). We obtained monthly Terrestrial Water Storage Anomaly (TWSA) at 0.25° spatial resolution from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), which is available from Centre for Space Research (CSR GRACE RL06 Mascon Solutions) for 2002 to 2016 ( Save 2019 ; Save et

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Satish Bastola and Vasubandhu Misra

Prediction Center's morphing method (CMORPH) and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Stage IV, are selected. CMORPH ( Joyce et al. 2004 ) combines estimates from low-orbiter satellite microwave observations with geostationary infrared data to produce global precipitation analyses at 3-hourly intervals and at 0.25° horizontal-grid resolution. CMORPH data are available over the domain of 60°S–60°N. Similarly, hourly data from NCEP Stage IV, produced by the National Weather Service

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Yanhong Gao, Fei Chen, and Yingsha Jiang

precipitation datasets ( Sun et al. 2018 ), such as interpolations based on station records, combining satellite and station observations, and climate modeling. However, most stations in the TP are located in the central and eastern part, and there is no single station situated above 4800 m in the western TP. Furthermore, precipitation records at high altitudes are always somehow problematic due to various limitations, such as precipitation under catchments ( Yang et al. 1998 ; Scaff et al. 2015 ; Pan et

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Wen Li Zhao, Guo Yu Qiu, Yu Jiu Xiong, Kyaw Tha Paw U, Pierre Gentine, and Bao Yu Chen

. C. Izaurralde , D. Ort , A. M. Thomson , and D. W. Wolfe , 2011 : Climate impacts on agriculture: Implications for crop production . Agron. J. , 103 , 351 – 370 , . 10.2134/agronj2010.0303 Hu , G. , and L. Jia , 2015 : Monitoring of evapotranspiration in a semi-arid inland river basin by combining microwave and optical remote sensing observations . Remote Sens. , 7 , 3056 – 3087 , . 10.3390/rs

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