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Yoshimi Kawai and Hiroshi Kawamura

near the surface unless the eddy diffusion coefficients were forcibly enlarged. This suggests that the hulls of the buoys disturb the temperature fields in the vicinity of the sea surface. Even when the wind is very weak and the observed wave height is almost zero, there are gravity waves and swells whose wavelengths are long and amplitudes are very small in the real seas. The wave and swell will swing the hull slightly and slowly. The waves with short wavelengths induced by the weak wind will

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Dudley B. Chelton and Michael G. Schlax

.1175/1520-0426(1997)014<0849:TMRCOS>2.0.CO;2 Killworth, P. D. , Chelton D. B. , and de Szoeke R. A. , 1997 : The speed of observed and theoretical long extra-tropical planetary waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 27 , 1946 – 1966 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1997)027<1946:TSOOAT>2.0.CO;2 Leeuwenburgh, O. , and Stammer D. , 2002 : Uncertainties in altimetry-based velocity estimates. J. Geophys. Res. , 107 . 3175, doi:1029/2001JC000937 . Le Traon, P-Y. , and Dibarboure G. , 1999 : Mesoscale mapping capabilities of multiple

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Atle Lohrmann, Bruce Hackett, and Lars Petter Røed

werecollected during the first open sea deployment of theCMS described by Hackett et al. ( 1987 ). The deployment site was on the North Sea plateau, near the western slope of the Norwegian Trench, in a water .depthof 110 m (see Fig. 3). For the observations described here, the samplingstrategy chosen was a compromise between, oceanographic requirements and instrument testing. In an attempt to keep the HRCP and ADCP bursts long enoughto cover the expected surface wave periods, yet shortenough that the

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A. Birol Kara, Harley E. Hurlburt, and Alan J. Wallcraft

based on wave age ( Oost et al. 2002 ) or one based on significant height and slope of the waves ( Taylor and Yelland 2001 ). The latter formula predicts significantly lower roughness at high wind speeds compared to the former one as explained by Taylor and Yelland (2003) who evaluated performance of the different formulas in predicting the C D . Based on evidence from laboratory studies (e.g., Keller et al. 1992 ) and comparisons with field experiments (e.g., Janssen 1997 ; Johnson et al

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Ben B. Balsley, Dale A. Lawrence, David C. Fritts, Ling Wang, Kam Wan, and Joe Werne

. , S. A. Mclaughlin , and J. R. Hines , 1995 : A new frequency-modulated continuous wave radar for studying planetary boundary layer morphology . Radio Sci. , 30 , 75 – 88 , https://doi.org/10.1029/94RS01937 . 10.1029/94RS01937 Fernando , H. J. S. , and Coauthors , 2015 : The MATERHORN: Unraveling the mysteries of mountain weather . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 96 , 1945 – 1967 , https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00131.1 . 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00131.1 Frehlich , R. , Y. Meillier

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Anthony Finn and Kevin Rogers

passively observe atmospheric properties using impulsive noise sources, such as birds or meteors ( Spiesberger and Fristrup 1990 ) or commercial aircraft ( Ostashev et al. 2000 ; Wilson et al. 2001 ). The method has practical application in a number of research fields, including boundary layer meteorology, land–sea surface–atmosphere interactions, theories of turbulence, and wave propagation through a turbulent atmosphere. For example, the technique is applied to experimental validation of large

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G. Dibarboure and R. Morrow

tide gauges and rarely over large space scales. Sea level variability can be impacted by the instrument noise and surface roughness conditions, which will be dominant at near-zero lag. Ocean dynamics at 1–10-day time scales include weak diurnal signals, internal waves and tides, the development of submesoscale fronts and filaments or small-scale eddies, the displacement of larger eddies, meanders or planetary waves, and the distinct rapid equatorial trapped baroclinic gravity waves, with spectral

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Zhen Zeng, Sergey Sokolovskiy, William S. Schreiner, and Doug Hunt

height can be explained by significantly enhanced effects of the polar vortex on the atmospheric horizontal inhomogeneity extending from the tropopause (~10 km) to the stratopause (~50–55 km) ( Noersomadi and Tsuda 2017 ). We note that in high latitudes, though we use the data from all year-round, the maximum COEFs for all collocated GPS RO–radiosonde pairs are found mainly in summer season (April–September), which should be related to reduced planetary wave activity. Fig . 6. (a),(b) As in Figs. 5c

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N. A. J. Schutgens

profiles. Studies of spaceborne Doppler radar observations require a fast, efficient, and accurate signal simulation technique to further our understanding of the observational effects caused by inhomogeneity and oversampling. Radar receiver voltages are stochastic in nature because of the turbulent motions of the atmospheric hydrometeors. Waves from one pulse, scattered by these hydrometeors, will superimpose differently at the receiver than waves from the previous pulse. The FFT simulation technique

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Thomas F. Gross

uniform layers of sand grains of diameter k d , that z 0 = k d /30 applies over a range of Reynolds number, as long as z / z 0 ≫ 1 ( Nikuradse 1932 ). Because the coefficient relating z 0 to geometrical length scales is so large, it might be better to think of z 0 as an integration constant and not as a physical length scale. Bradshaw and Huang (1995) state “ C is related to the increase in U across the viscous wall region.” The Grant and Madsen (1982) wave–current model produces

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