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Vladimir V. Smirnov and G. W. K. Moore

1. Introduction Studies of the hydrological cycle are extremely important for understanding the global climate system and its sensitivity to anthropogenic effects ( Chahine 1992 ). Atmospheric water vapor is one of the major contributors to the greenhouse effect, to which the Arctic is most susceptible ( Jones 1988 ; Manabe et al. 1991 ; Hinzman and Kane 1992 ). One of the regions that has experienced the greatest warming anywhere in the world over the last 30 years is the Mackenzie River

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Inés Camilloni and Vicente Barros

1. Introduction Starting in May 1983, the most severe floods of the twentieth century occurred in the Argentine section of the Paraná River, the most important of the Río de la Plata tributaries. Although a documented study is not available, this flood has been generally attributed to the exceptionally strong El Niño (EN) event that took place during late 1982 and the ensuing months of 1983. This belief was based on the fact that the Paraná River basin is part of a region that has a strong

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Andrew C. Martin, F. Martin Ralph, Anna Wilson, Laurel DeHaan, and Brian Kawzenuk

1. Introduction a. Event significance At 1800 UTC 10 December 2014, an extreme ( Ralph et al. 2019a ) atmospheric river (AR) struck the Russian River watershed (RRW) in California (CA), causing the river to exceed flood stage near the flood-vulnerable town of Guerneville. Figures 1a and 1b show the AR as its southeastern edge is striking the RRW using integrated water vapor (mm) and the magnitude of integrated vapor transport (IVT; kg m −1 s −1 ) diagnosed from ERA-Interim ( Dee et al. 2011

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Huan Wu, Robert F. Adler, Yudong Tian, Guojun Gu, and George J. Huffman

-routing model to form the Dominant River Tracing-Routing Integrated with VIC Environment (DRIVE) model system. The DRIVE model serves as the core of the GFMS ( http://flood.umd.edu ) driven by the real-time TMPA satellite-based precipitation, routinely providing global flood information every 3 h at ⅛° (or ~12 km) resolution. The GFMS has been available to a wide range of users and has been providing essential inputs in catastrophe response activities by various humanitarian relief agencies such as the

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Augusto C. V. Getirana, Aaron Boone, and Christophe Peugeot

located along a north–south transect and therefore provide a good characterization of the West African ecoclimatic gradient. The current study focuses on the upper Ouémé River basin, located in Benin, in which river networks are well structured. Over the other two mesoscale supersites, both gullies of limited extension (1–10 km) and low connectivity transfer water to topographic depressions (sinks), with no flow at larger scales (so-called endorheism; Desconnets et al. 1997 ). The mesoscale modeling

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Nicholas E. Wayand, Alan F. Hamlet, Mimi Hughes, Shara I. Feld, and Jessica D. Lundquist

-instrumented maritime mountain basin, the North Fork of the American River basin (hereafter NF American basin; Fig. 1 ) in the northern Sierra Nevada, California. Because of the previously referenced dominance of the irradiance terms in the surface energy balance in this river basin ( Marks and Dozier 1992 ), we do not examine turbulent fluxes and wind speed sources (W), but instead focus on the sources of precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and downward SW and LW irradiance data. Common empirical

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Alexandre M. Ramos, Ricardo M. Trigo, Margarida L. R. Liberato, and Ricardo Tomé

1. Introduction Understanding the complexity of the water cycle (sources, sinks, and transport) in the atmosphere continues to be an important topic within the meteorological and hydrological communities ( Gimeno et al. 2012 ). Within this context, particular attention has been devoted in the last decade to the important role played by atmospheric rivers (ARs; e.g., Ralph and Dettinger 2011 ; Gimeno et al. 2014 ). ARs are relatively narrow regions of concentrated water vapor (WV) and strong

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Erin Dougherty and Kristen L. Rasmussen

1. Introduction In the continental United States (CONUS), floods are the second deadliest weather-related natural disaster ( Ashley and Ashley 2008 ) and accounted for over $123.5 billion in adjusted losses between 1980 and 2018 ( Smith 2019 ). Deadly flash flooding in Texas and Arkansas from 9 to 11 June 2010 resulted in over $10 million in damage along the Guadalupe River in Texas and 20 fatalities at the Albert Pike Recreational Area in western Arkansas ( Schumacher et al. 2013 ). This

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H. K. Cigizoglu, M. Bayazit, and B. Önöz

region. Streamflow is sensitive to changes in precipitation and other climate parameters. Hence it is informative to investigate whether streamflow records exhibit evidence of trends that may be linked to climate change. Trend existence in the annual maximum (flood), mean, and low flows in rivers carries significance for different types of water resources problems. Floods and mean flows are considered in the design of flood mitigation structures and water storage reservoirs. Low flows are especially

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Siraj ul Islam, Stephen J. Déry, and Arelia T. Werner

susceptible to these climate change–driven modifications ( Morrison et al. 2002 ; Ferrari et al. 2007 ). The Fraser River basin (FRB) of British Columbia (BC), where complex topography dominates the landscape, is a prime example of a susceptible basin. It spans one-fourth of BC, covering roughly 230 000 km 2 , and thus forms a large basin with significant environmental, economic, and cultural importance. The presence of a seasonal snowpack in the FRB is an essential component of its water resources and

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