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S.-Y. Simon Wang, Robert R. Gillies, Oi-Yu Chung, and Chaopeng Shen

1. Introduction The Colorado River spans seven states in the western United States and is a leading provider of water for municipal use, agriculture, and power in the Southwest. In the face of the warming climate, numerous papers have warned about sizable water shortages of the Colorado River ( Barnett and Pierce 2008 , 2009 ; Christensen et al. 2004 ; McCabe and Wolock 2007 ; Rajagopalan et al. 2009 ). In 2013, the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) released a comprehensive Colorado River Basin

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Yali Luo, Weimiao Qian, Renhe Zhang, and Da-Lin Zhang

1. Introduction Climatologically, the mei-yu season over the Yangtze–Huai Rivers basin (YHRB; Fig. 1b ) in east-central China from mid-June to mid-July is one of the three heavy rainfall periods in China. The other two are the early summer rainy season from mid-May to mid-June over south China and the summer rainy season in north-northeast China after mid-July (e.g., Ding 1992 ). This intraseasonal variation exhibits sharp northward shifts among the three regions, which are associated with

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Do Hyuk Kang, Xiaogang Shi, Huilin Gao, and Stephen J. Déry

1. Introduction The presence of a seasonal snowpack in western Canada forms an essential component of its regional water resources and also serves as a sensitive indicator of climate change. Peak flows of the Fraser River of British Columbia (BC) and its many tributaries usually occur in late spring and early summer and are driven by snowmelt, especially at high elevations ( Moore and Wondzell 2005 ). The Fraser River basin (FRB) is a snow-dominated system ( Morrison et al. 2002 ), but

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Vladimir V. Smirnov and G. W. K. Moore

1. Introduction Studies of the hydrological cycle are extremely important for understanding the global climate system and its sensitivity to anthropogenic effects ( Chahine 1992 ). Atmospheric water vapor is one of the major contributors to the greenhouse effect, to which the Arctic is most susceptible ( Jones 1988 ; Manabe et al. 1991 ; Hinzman and Kane 1992 ). One of the regions that has experienced the greatest warming anywhere in the world over the last 30 years is the Mackenzie River

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Inés Camilloni and Vicente Barros

1. Introduction Starting in May 1983, the most severe floods of the twentieth century occurred in the Argentine section of the Paraná River, the most important of the Río de la Plata tributaries. Although a documented study is not available, this flood has been generally attributed to the exceptionally strong El Niño (EN) event that took place during late 1982 and the ensuing months of 1983. This belief was based on the fact that the Paraná River basin is part of a region that has a strong

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Andrew C. Martin, F. Martin Ralph, Anna Wilson, Laurel DeHaan, and Brian Kawzenuk

1. Introduction a. Event significance At 1800 UTC 10 December 2014, an extreme ( Ralph et al. 2019a ) atmospheric river (AR) struck the Russian River watershed (RRW) in California (CA), causing the river to exceed flood stage near the flood-vulnerable town of Guerneville. Figures 1a and 1b show the AR as its southeastern edge is striking the RRW using integrated water vapor (mm) and the magnitude of integrated vapor transport (IVT; kg m −1 s −1 ) diagnosed from ERA-Interim ( Dee et al. 2011

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Huan Wu, Robert F. Adler, Yudong Tian, Guojun Gu, and George J. Huffman

-routing model to form the Dominant River Tracing-Routing Integrated with VIC Environment (DRIVE) model system. The DRIVE model serves as the core of the GFMS ( http://flood.umd.edu ) driven by the real-time TMPA satellite-based precipitation, routinely providing global flood information every 3 h at ⅛° (or ~12 km) resolution. The GFMS has been available to a wide range of users and has been providing essential inputs in catastrophe response activities by various humanitarian relief agencies such as the

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Augusto C. V. Getirana, Aaron Boone, and Christophe Peugeot

located along a north–south transect and therefore provide a good characterization of the West African ecoclimatic gradient. The current study focuses on the upper Ouémé River basin, located in Benin, in which river networks are well structured. Over the other two mesoscale supersites, both gullies of limited extension (1–10 km) and low connectivity transfer water to topographic depressions (sinks), with no flow at larger scales (so-called endorheism; Desconnets et al. 1997 ). The mesoscale modeling

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Nicholas E. Wayand, Alan F. Hamlet, Mimi Hughes, Shara I. Feld, and Jessica D. Lundquist

-instrumented maritime mountain basin, the North Fork of the American River basin (hereafter NF American basin; Fig. 1 ) in the northern Sierra Nevada, California. Because of the previously referenced dominance of the irradiance terms in the surface energy balance in this river basin ( Marks and Dozier 1992 ), we do not examine turbulent fluxes and wind speed sources (W), but instead focus on the sources of precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and downward SW and LW irradiance data. Common empirical

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Alexandre M. Ramos, Ricardo M. Trigo, Margarida L. R. Liberato, and Ricardo Tomé

1. Introduction Understanding the complexity of the water cycle (sources, sinks, and transport) in the atmosphere continues to be an important topic within the meteorological and hydrological communities ( Gimeno et al. 2012 ). Within this context, particular attention has been devoted in the last decade to the important role played by atmospheric rivers (ARs; e.g., Ralph and Dettinger 2011 ; Gimeno et al. 2014 ). ARs are relatively narrow regions of concentrated water vapor (WV) and strong

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