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Jeffrey Coogan and Brian Dzwonkowski

1. Introduction Understanding the salt balance in estuaries is an important process to examine how the salinity structure responds to river, wind, and tidal forcing on subtidal time scales. This dynamic relationship among salinity structure, forcing conditions, and feedbacks can be broken into river forcing, baroclinic exchange, and mixing components. From this simple balance, researchers have been able to describe the salt storage of a system and how the salinity structure and estuary length

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Edgar L. Andreas

and tuned with data for wind speeds up to 20 m s −1 , I have some confidence that it can be extrapolated up to the lower limits of hurricane-strength winds—say to 40 m s −1 . As spray droplets evaporate, they become increasingly saline. By logically following the concept of reentrant spray droplets mentioned above, we see that these droplets must also constitute an effective salt flux to the ocean when they fall back into the sea. To my knowledge, no one has estimated this spray salt flux before

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Eitarou Oka, Shinya Kouketsu, Katsuya Toyama, Kazuyuki Uehara, Taiyo Kobayashi, Shigeki Hosoda, and Toshio Suga

salinity as the CMW pycnostads in the permanent pycnocline, extends as far west as 143°E, almost reaching the east coast of Japan. How is CMW subducted from this zonally elongated formation region into the permanent pycnocline? The mechanism is important in determining the CMW properties and causing their variability but has not been well clarified. Numerical models demonstrated that CMW is subducted east of the date line by crossing a sharp front of the mixed layer depth (MLD) at the eastern end of

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James J. Simpson and Clayton A. Paulson

-OLUME9 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY SEPTEMBER1979Observations of Upper Ocean Temperature and Salinity Structure During the POLE Experiment JAMES J. SIMPSON1 AND CLAYTON A. PAULSONSchool of Oceanography, Oregon State University, Corvallis 97331(Manuscript received 4 September 1978, in final form 19 March 19.79)ABSTRACTMid-ocean observations (35-N, 155-W) of temperature and salinity were

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Xiangyu Li, W. Rockwell Geyer, Jianrong Zhu, and Hui Wu

1. Introduction With the freshwater input from the river and saltwater input from the ocean, an estuary produces intermediate salinity water and exports the brackish water back into the ocean. This mixing process fundamentally depends on the horizontal salinity gradient between the riverine freshwater and the oceanic saltwater, which is a fundamental characteristic of estuaries ( Nunes Vaz et al. 1989 ). This horizontal salinity gradient drives estuarine circulation, which provides the mean

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Gunnar I. Roden and James D. Irish

. Deep Sea Res., 17, 445454.--, and J. S. Farlow, 1967: Analysis of some Great Lakes drogue studies. Proc. Tenth Conf. Great Lakes Res., Intern. Assoc. Great Lakes Research, Ann Arbor, 299-308.Palmer, M. D., 1972: Measurement of currents in the Great Lakes. Tech. Manual Ser., No. 3, International Field Year for the Great Lakes.Reed, R. K., 1971: An observation of divergence in the Alaskan Stream. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 1, 282-283.Electronic Digitization and Sensor Response Effects on Salinity

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Shota Katsura and Janet Sprintall

1. Introduction Salinity can be the dominant contributor to upper-ocean density stratification in some oceanic regions (e.g., de Boyer Montégut et al. 2007 ). In these regions, strong vertical salinity gradient layers, called haloclines, shape the pycnocline and inhibit the exchange of heat, momentum, and other properties between the surface and subsurface layers. This affects sea surface temperature (SST) and hence the heat exchange with the atmosphere that controls the heat content and

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Alexander V. Wilchinsky and Daniel L. Feltham

along the coast, generating a coastal current. The most common origin of buoyant coastal currents is the freshwater discharge from rivers into oceans. Other examples are the East Greenland Current ( Wadhams et al. 1979 ; Bacon et al. 2002 ), driven by a complex system of forces resulting from the inflow of low salinity water from Fram Strait, meltwater runoff from the Greenland ice sheet, and a predominantly cyclonic wind stress; the Norwegian Coastal Current caused by the freshwater outflow and

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Tangdong Qu and Shan Gao

oscillatory nature of ENSO, a number of indices, including the atmospheric Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and the oceanic Niño-3, Niño-3.4, and Niño-4 sea surface temperature (SST) indices (e.g., Rasmusson and Carpenter 1982 ; Trenberth 1997 ), have been introduced and widely used over the past decades. As more sea surface salinity (SSS) observations become available, SSS indices have also been introduced in recent years, giving different perspectives to characterize ENSO. Among others, the Niño-S34

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Hiroko Saito, Toshio Suga, Kimio Hanawa, and Nobuyuki Shikama

1. Introduction The subtropical–subarctic transition region in the North Pacific is the basin-scale boundary region between subtropical and subarctic waters where the upper region forms a transition from warm and saline subtropical water to cold and fresh subarctic water. This transition region has been described in regard to fisheries oceanography using isohaline or isotherm criteria (e.g., Favorite et al. 1976 ). The northern boundary of the subtropics (the southern boundary of the

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