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Edgar L. Andreas

1. Introduction Over glaciers, sea ice, and snow-covered ground, the atmospheric surface layer is often stably stratified. Estimating the contributions from the surface sensible and latent heat fluxes to the surface energy budget for such surfaces usually relies on Monin–Obukhov similarity theory to deal with these stratification effects. This method, in turn, requires knowing how to parameterize the roughness lengths for wind speed ( z 0 ), the so-called scalar roughness length for temperature

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Murray D. MacKay

primary role of lakes in the overall climate system is through the turbulent exchange of heat, moisture, and carbon with the atmosphere, it is essential to represent ice cover in our lake tiles. Ice first forms when the energy balance in the skin layer is sufficiently negative to drop the skin temperature below 0°C, and grows through heat exchange at the water–ice interface, assuming a linear temperature profile through the ice layer. Ice albedo is fixed at 0.45 ( Greene and Outcalt 1985 ), and ice

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Normand Bussières and William M. Schertzer

temperatures from AVHRR channels 4 and 5, and the coefficients are a 1 = −12.561 58, a 2 = 1.049 03, a 3 = 0.405 98, and a 4 = 0.745 36. The experimental AVHRR data for this study includes data for the spring period where the water bodies are still covered by ice. Equation (1) is not designed for ice, but Bussières et al. (2002) observed that a split-window equation for water allows to separate the ice regime from the open-water regime in AVHRR temperature time series. b. Calibration of

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Han Zhang, Chuanhao Wu, Wenjie Chen, and Guoru Huang

. (1) , and 2) waterlogging probability, which means the probability that rainfall or tide level is greater than a specific value of a certain return period, is shown in Eq. (2) : where P and Z represent precipitation and tide level, respectively, and and are the marginal distribution functions of P and Z , respectively. b. Prediction of sea level rise The IPCC provides a more reliable prediction for global temperature than for sea level rise, since our knowledge on the dynamics of ice

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Peter D. Blanken, Wayne R. Rouse, and William M. Schertzer

1. Introduction Large lakes are capable of modifying the energy and water cycles of the land that surrounds them. For example, differences in the surface energy balance of water versus land leads to large differences in surface temperatures over each surface. When mid- and high-latitude lakes are ice free in the late fall and early winter, they help maintain higher air temperatures and promote overcast conditions in the surrounding area that would otherwise be much colder and drier. Lake

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Roberto Rudari, Dara Entekhabi, and Giorgio Roth

. Climate , 14 , 1568 – 1584 . 10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<1568:DPOTIR>2.0.CO;2 Godfred-Spenning, C. R. , and Simmonds I. , 1996 : An analysis of Antarctic sea-ice and extratropical cyclone associations. Int. J. Climatol , 16 , 1325 – 1332 . Hoskins, B. J. , McIntyre M. E. , and Robertson A. W. , 1985 : On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity maps. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc , 111 , 877 – 946 . 10.1002/qj.49711147002 Jones, D. A. , and Simmonds I. , 1993

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Victoria L. Sanderson, Chris Kidd, and Glenn R. McGregor

estimates are subject to threshold biases and contamination by nonraining cirrus ( Todd et al. 1999 ). Passive microwave retrieval techniques observe the natural radiation from the earth and atmosphere. The main source of microwave radiation atmospheric attenuation is ice and/or liquid hydrometeors, because microwave radiation is relatively insensitive to cloud liquid water and water vapor at the frequencies used for rainfall monitoring. Over the ocean, the absorption/emission signal associated with

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Isidora Jankov, Jian-Wen Bao, Paul J. Neiman, Paul J. Schultz, Huiling Yuan, and Allen B. White

), nonbright band (NBB), and hybrid. The physical processes associated with the formation of a BB are described by Houze (1993 , p. 198) and paraphrased here. In certain cloud systems, ice particles several kilometers above the 0°C level grow primarily by vapor deposition and begin to fall. As they descend to within about 2.5 km of the 0°C level, aggregation crystals may begin to occur, forming snowflakes that are larger and thus more highly reflective than an equivalent mass of dispersed crystals

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Z. Long, W. Perrie, J. Gyakum, D. Caya, and R. Laprise

. For example, Great Slave Lake is colder than the surrounding land in early summer after the final ice melts and warmer than the surrounding land in late fall and early winter before it freezes over. The difference in temperature between the middle of Great Slave Lake and the northern shore exhibits an approximate linear increase, from −6°C in June to 6°C in December. In summer, the lake receives a large net amount of solar radiation, but as the surface sensible heat and latent heat fluxes over the

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Kamil Mroz, Mario Montopoli, Alessandro Battaglia, Giulia Panegrossi, Pierre Kirstetter, and Luca Baldini

, the weak snowfall scattering signal can be masked by the increased atmospheric emission from supercooled cloud droplets ( Kneifel et al. 2010 ; Liu and Seo 2013 ; Wang et al. 2013 ; Panegrossi et al. 2017 ). Second, the changes in the surface emissivity due to snow accumulation (and its subsequent metamorphosis) and/or sea ice variability can be confused with the snow hydrometeor microwave signal ( Noh et al. 2009 ; Turk et al. 2014 ; Munchak et al. 2020 ; Takbiri et al. 2019 ). These issues

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