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M. A. Rennick and R. L. Haney

thermocline depth anomaly(Lau, 1981; Philander et al., 1984), while in the othermodel, T is assumed to be produced by anomalouszonal advection in the ocean (Rennick, 1983). A meanzonal wind is included in the atmosphere in all cases.Our analytic results show that, within the restrictedframework of equatorial Kelvin wave dynamics (i.e.,no mefidional motion in the ocean or atmosphere),the form of the ocean-to-atmosphere coupling and thevalues used for certain atmospheric model parameterssignificantly alter

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Richard S. Lindzen

zero PV gradient but/~ ~ O. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 3221-3226.--., and A. Y. Hou, 1988: Hadley circulations for zonally averaged heating centered off the equator. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 2416-2427. , and W. Pan, 1994: A note on orbital control of equator-pole heat fluxes. Climate Dyn., 10, 49-57.Marshall, J. C., and A. J. G. Nurser, 1991: A continuously stratified thermocline model incorporating a mixed layer of variable thickness and density. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21, 1780-1792.Sun, D.-Z., and R

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Dale F. Leipper

-% ,-,,-'~ . . ? q,' -~ ...... ~. ........ . .............. !( - u~x[~ ~o~ ~-~ '::/%~'~ .~ .g -~-~' ~ ~ ' - ' / ~~ ~1 ~-~' ~ M~XE0, FLAT / +'~' ~V~[,[~/?~xr~wr OF27- THERMOCLINE / ~:5')<~' ,/ HUPP/CANE W/~D ~ ? (~7-~o., = UNMIXED, UPWELLINGI~2~'~~;~3.' '' P

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Yumin Moon and David S. Nolan

-mean wind speed; a typical lifetime of these convective cells is shorter than that of rainbands (e.g., Senn and Hiser 1959 ; Barnes et al. 1991 ). A commonly observed kinematic feature of principal and secondary rainband circulations is enhanced tangential velocity on their radially outward sides, which is often maximized above the boundary layer between z = 2 and 5 km (e.g., Powell 1990a , b ; Samsury and Zipser 1995 ; see Figs. 2a,b ). Vertical cross sections through the middle regions of

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Noboru Nakamura

~. Relevance of this model to the stratospheric polar vortex, midlatitude tropopause,and oceanic thermocline is discussed.1. Introduction Variability of tracer distribution in the atmosphereand ocean is affected by both transport (advective aswell as nonadvective) and in situ sources-sinks. Separating the effects of one process from those of theothers is nontrivial, but progress can be made when thetracer motion is measured relative to another tracer:since all species are advected equally, the relative

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Moritz Flügel and Ping Chang

ocean–atmosphere general circulation models (GCMs) ( Latif et al. 1993 ; Leetmaa and Ji 1989 ; Rosati et al. 1995 ). Although these models have all demonstrated certain capability of predicting the ENSO-related sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies several seasons in advance, predictive skills vary considerably from model to model. With the exception of the coupled GCMs, the seasonal cycles of the SST and wind in these models are either prescribed or absent, thereby only allowing for interactions

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Chunzai Wang, Robert H. Weisberg, and Huijun Yang

oscillator model In some numerical models, surface heat fluxes as a whole have been simplistically treated as Newtonian cooling using a temporally constant coefficient. For example, Oberhuber (1988) demonstrated how the heat flux could be simplified as a Newtonian cooling or the heat flux correction term in simulating SST in an ocean general circulation model. Letting an overbar denote the temporal mean and a prime denote the deviation (or anomaly) from the mean, the surface heat flux anomaly Q ′ can

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Ping Chang, Link Ji, Bin Wang, and Tim Li

Cane and Zebiak typeof ocean model (CZ model hereafter) that has beenused extensively in ENSO modeling studies. Themodel has an interface between two immiscible layersof fluid, each of constant density, which simulates thesharp and shallow tropical thermocline separating thewarm surface waters from the cold waters of the deepocean. The motion in the upper layer obeys the conservation laws for mass and momentum. The lowerlayer is assumed to be infinitely deep. To keep its kinetic energy finite

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Akira Kasahara

frequencies of the BII modes are very close to the inertial frequency f V , and they are rather insensitive to the thermal stratification of fluid, as well as the horizontal scale L of motions. However, their vertical modal structures are very sensitive to the thermal stability N and, to a lesser extent, to the horizontal scale L. For example, the vertical scale of modal structure is on the order of 5 m in the thermocline ( N = 10 −2 s −1 ) and it becomes on the order of 500 m below the

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Yoshikazu Hayashi

Fouriertransform method and the maximum entropy method. Aspace-time spectral analysis resolves disturbances intoprogressive and retrogressive components. It is alsopossible to resolve transient disturbances into standingand traveling waves by use of formulas developed byHayashi (1977a, 1979). The space-time spectral formulas have been extensively applied to the waveanalyses of general circulation models (Hayashi, 1974;Hayashi and Golder, 1977, 1978) and observationalanalysis (Gruber, 1974; Zangvil, 1975a

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