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Angélique Melet, Robert Hallberg, Sonya Legg, and Maxim Nikurashin

1. Introduction The breaking of internal waves represents the main source of diapycnal mixing in the ocean interior ( Garrett and Kunze 2007 ). Diapycnal mixing in turn plays a key role in maintaining the ocean stratification and the meridional overturning circulation (MOC): the convective creation of dense surface water that occurs in a few locations of the global ocean (e.g., Southern Ocean, Nordic seas, and Labrador Sea) is balanced by the upwelling of deep water driven by both turbulent

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Antoine Hochet, Thierry Huck, and Alain Colin de Verdière

1. Introduction During the last 20 yr, the measurements of the ocean surface properties by satellite instruments have allowed us to significantly increase our knowledge of ocean dynamics. Chelton and Schlax (1996) were among the first to show that large-scale anomalies, propagating to the west, were observable in the altimetry. Since then, a large number of authors have described these anomalies, generally depicted as Rossby waves, using various techniques such as a Hovmöller diagram

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Jaclyn N. Brown, J. Stuart Godfrey, and Susan E. Wijffels

1. Introduction The ocean currents in the equatorial Pacific are significantly nonlinear. Contributing to this nonlinearity are eddies, such as tropical instability waves (TIWs) (e.g., Legeckis 1997 ; McCreary and Yu 1992 ; Baturin and Niiler 1997 ). TIWs appear as oscillations of the currents, sea level, and sea surface temperature in the eastern equatorial Pacific. These disturbances are mixed barotropic/baroclinic instabilities feeding on the kinetic and potential energy of the mean

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Luwei Yang, Maxim Nikurashin, Andrew McC. Hogg, and Bernadette M. Sloyan

internal lee waves, which is indicated to be a nonnegligible energy sink of the eddy field and a significant energy source of turbulent mixing in the deep Southern Ocean by recent estimates, numerical simulations, and observations ( Legg 2020 , and references therein). The enhanced turbulent mixing over major topographic features associated with the breaking of internal lee waves leads to water mass transformation in the deep Southern Ocean and hence controls the strength and structure of the MOC

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Jamie MacMahan

1. Introduction Over land, the geometric roughness k and corresponding aerodynamic roughness z o for surface features can be considered temporally constant. Over the open ocean, z o is a function of both surface texture (associated viscous surface stresses) and the local wave field (associated form drag and flow separation). The associated stresses are dynamically coupled with the wind, can evolve together, and transition from viscous stresses to wave stresses. Nonlocal wave fields

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Jan Erik Weber

1. Introduction It has been known for a long time that surface water waves carry mean momentum ( Stokes 1847 ). For monochromatic waves in a viscous nonrotating fluid, the pioneering paper is that of Longuet-Higgins (1953) . For a direct Lagrangian approach to wave drift in a rotating ocean, earlier treatments of this problem are found in papers such as those of Chang (1969) , Ünlüata and Mei (1970) , and Weber (1983a , b ). Also the generalized Lagrangian-mean formulation of Andrews and

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Carl Wunsch and Spahr Webb

VOLUME9 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY MARCH 1979The Climatology of Deep Ocean Internal Waves CARL WUNSCH AND SPAHR WEBBDepartment of Earth & Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139(Manuscript received 21 July 1978, in final form 25 September 1978)ABSTRACT The search for regions of the deep ocean where the canonical

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W. Perrie and B. Toulany

total energy E ∗ c o can be parameterized by a fetch-law relation in terms of inverse wave age U ∗ c / C p , E ∗ c o = ϵ ( U ∗ c / C p ) γ , (4) where γ and ϵ are appropriate constants. Equation (4) is important because it relates total energy E ∗ c o and inverse wave age U ∗ c / C p . These are open ocean variables specifying spectral maturity. Fetch relations such as Eq. (4) obtained correlation coefficients as high as 0.99 with respect to the CASP data ( Perrie and Toulany 1990

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Julien Jouanno, Frédéric Marin, Yves du Penhoat, and Jean-Marc Molines

associated with the tropical instability waves (TIWs), which are triggered by the instabilities of the tropical oceanic currents (e.g., von Schuckmann et al. 2008 ; Perez et al. 2012 ). Besides the observational evidence that the 15-day variability of the meridional surface velocities is forced by the wind, the dynamical response of the upper ocean to 15-day wind fluctuations is still not fully understood. As mentioned by Picaut (1984) , there is a discrepancy between the zonal wavelengths of the

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Lars Czeschel, Carsten Eden, and Richard J. Greatbatch

-driven stratified ocean is initially strongly modified by variable topography, and it is only when most baroclinic Rossby waves emitted from the wind forcing have reached the western boundary that flat-bottom Sverdrup balance tends to be reached ( Anderson and Killworth 1977 ). Anderson and Corry (1985a) show that transport variation can be related to barotropic Rossby waves generated by wind stress and wind stress curls acting over variable bottom topography. In addition, baroclinic Kelvin waves from the

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