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Lars Czeschel, Carsten Eden, and Richard J. Greatbatch

-driven stratified ocean is initially strongly modified by variable topography, and it is only when most baroclinic Rossby waves emitted from the wind forcing have reached the western boundary that flat-bottom Sverdrup balance tends to be reached ( Anderson and Killworth 1977 ). Anderson and Corry (1985a) show that transport variation can be related to barotropic Rossby waves generated by wind stress and wind stress curls acting over variable bottom topography. In addition, baroclinic Kelvin waves from the

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Christopher J. Zappa, Michael L. Banner, Russel P. Morison, and Sophia E. Brumer

central role of surface and breaking waves in upper ocean dynamics and air–sea fluxes, wave and breaking measurements are paramount. The dissipation of wave energy in the energetic part of the spectrum has attracted considerable recent interest. Presently, parametric versions of S ds based on satellite data are used in the context of active whitecap fraction ( Anguelova and Hwang 2016 ), of ocean swell dissipation ( Ardhuin et al. 2009 ), and of the TKE dissipation rate due to breaking ( Hwang and

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Christopher C. Chapman, Andrew McC. Hogg, Andrew E. Kiss, and Stephen R. Rintoul

baroclinicity. Energy is passed from one eddy to another in the downstream development process. Danielson et al. (2006) presented an example of this effect in an analysis of cyclone development over the North Pacific using atmospheric reanalysis data. A single wave packet emanating from the Asian mainland caused two cyclones to develop as it propagated across the ocean. Taken together, Simmons and Hoskins (1979) and Chang and Orlanski (1993) provide a compelling physical mechanism for the formation

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Jamie MacMahan

swell) that occur in the 3456–12 096-cpd frequency band (7–25-s periods) that radiate away from the coast and travel around the ocean basins ( Herbers et al. 1994 , 1995 ; among others). Based on these studies, it is plausible that small-amplitude, free IG waves in the seiche frequency bands are a component of oceanic white noise, and they are what is forcing the seiche in Monterey Bay and likely elsewhere. Though there is agreement on the idea that free IG waves are a component of oceanic white

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Gengxin Chen, Weiqing Han, Yuanlong Li, Michael J. McPhaden, Ju Chen, Weiqiang Wang, and Dongxiao Wang

-pass filtered forcing inside the box. Fig . 2. Mooring-observed daily (a) zonal current u and (b) meridional current υ (m s −1 ) of the upper 400 m at 5°N, 90.5°E from 2 Apr 2013 through 15 Apr 2014. The black line marks the zero velocity contour. The ISV of the equatorial winds over the Indian Ocean has been shown to significantly affect the adjacent areas. Intraseasonal equatorial Kelvin waves driven by winds associated with the MJO can propagate to the eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) boundary and the

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Luigi Cavaleri

about our hopeful idea that, adding the single descriptions of the various processes at work, this would be enough to create a proper hindcasting–forecasting machine. As discussed in the previous section, clearly the experience indicates this is not the case. To start with, the sea on which we propagate our waves is not uniform and undisturbed. Rather, the oceans are characterized by currents that interact with the wave field. Most of the currents we find in the sea are not strong enough to affect

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J. R. Carpenter, A. Guha, and E. Heifetz

(1957) . Recent observational evidence of the presence of a critical layer in the airflow above ocean waves has also been found by Hristov et al. (2003) and Grare et al. (2013) . In addition, controlled laboratory experiments by Buckley and Veron (2016) demonstrate the presence of a critical layer, despite the presence of a highly turbulent airflow, in agreement with the predictions of Miles’ theory. In all of these observations, the critical layer only emerges once significant phase averaging

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Gengxin Chen, Weiqing Han, Xiaolin Zhang, Linlin Liang, Huijie Xue, Ke Huang, Yunkai He, Jian Li, and Dongxiao Wang

> 107.5°E, 7.5°S < y < 7.5°N, and it relaxes the zonal-velocity and pressure fields of each mode to zero there ( Han et al. 1999 ). The damper efficiently absorbs the energy of incoming equatorial Kelvin waves, and thus no Rossby waves are reflected back into the ocean interior from the eastern boundary. While LOM_DAMP primarily measures the effects of directly forced Kelvin and Rossby waves, the solution difference LOM_Reflect (LOM_MR − LOM_DAMP) isolates the reflected Rossby wave effects ( Chen

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Franz Philip Tuchen, Peter Brandt, Martin Claus, and Rebecca Hummels

equatorial and off-equatorial Rossby waves at the western boundary ( Polo et al. 2008 ). TIWs appear to zonally propagate near the surface and are often described as quasi-monthly fluctuations of sea surface temperature (SST) or sea surface height anomalies being common to all tropical oceans ( Steger and Carton 1991 ). Atlantic TIWs are generally characterized by periods of 20–60 days, zonal wavelengths of 600–1200 km, and westward phase speeds of 20–60 cm s −1 (e.g., Weisberg and Weingartner 1988

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T. H. C. Herbers and T. T. Janssen

1. Introduction The nonlinearity of ocean surface waves affects the geometrical properties of the sea surface and is important for understanding wave-induced transport and drift characteristics. Second-order nonlinear effects include the familiar enhanced steepness of wave crests ( Stokes 1847 ) and mean water level variations on the scale of wave groups ( Longuet-Higgins and Stewart 1962 ). The associated deviations from Gaussian sea surface statistics and variations in the wave

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