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Meredith A. Fish, Anna M. Wilson, and F. Martin Ralph

ARs are synoptic-scale features that can span entire ocean basins, smaller-scale features can not only influence forecast skill but also alter hydrologic impacts. Mesoscale frontal waves (MFWs) associated with an AR can modify the spatial distribution of the AR and increase the total event precipitation ( Ralph et al. 2011 ). For one case in Southern California, an AR affected by a MFW caused an increase in the convergence and ascent along frontal boundaries within the AR, accounting for 35

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H. Leijnse, R. Uijlenhoet, C. Z. van de Beek, A. Overeem, T. Otto, C. M. H. Unal, Y. Dufournet, H. W. J. Russchenberg, J. Figueras i Ventura, H. Klein Baltink, and I. Holleman

al. 2000 ). These two radars are both polarimetric frequency modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radars with extremely high spatial resolutions. IDRA operates at X band, is located on top of the tower, and scans at 1 rpm at an elevation angle of 0.5°. Spectral polarimetry ( Unal 2009 ) is applied in real-time data processing to suppress clutter and thus to enhance precipitation detection. TARA is a profiling radar that operates at S band, with beam azimuth and elevation that can be adjusted manually

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Jhan Carlo Espinoza, Josyane Ronchail, Frédéric Frappart, Waldo Lavado, William Santini, and Jean Loup Guyot

attributed to an El Niño event through a reduced water vapor transport in April–August caused by an anomalous divergence over the western Amazon (i.e., 1998). In 2010, both oceanic episodes caused the strongest drought observed in this region ( Espinoza et al. 2011 ; Marengo et al. 2011 ). Fig . 1. JFM 2012 rainfall anomalies (mm day −1 ) from TRMM 3B42 v7 for (a) the Amazon basin and (b) the Peruvian Amazonas basin at Tamshiyacu. (c) Mean (1970–2011) hydrological year at Tamshiyacu station (black line

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Gregory R. Markowski and Gerald R. North

anomalies, planetary waves, and air–sea feedback in the middle latitudes. Rev. Geophys. , 23 , 357 – 390 . 10.1029/RG023i004p00357 Gershunov, A. , and Barnett T. P. , 1998 : Interdecadal modulation of ENSO teleconnections. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 79 , 2715 – 2725 . 10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<2715:IMOET>2.0.CO;2 Gill, A. E. , 1982 : Atmosphere–Ocean Dynamics . Academic Press, 662 pp . Guttman, N. B. , and Quayle R. G. , 1996 : A historical perspective of U.S. climate divisions

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Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, Marios N. Anagnostou, Witold F. Krajewski, Anton Kruger, and Benjamin J. Miriovsky

condition can be related to their volume ( Pruppacher and Beard 1970 ). This nonspherical raindrop geometry impacts both propagation and backscatter of an incoming H and V polarization electromagnetic radar wave. The most common polarimetric radar measurements are the reflectivity factors at H and V polarization ( Z H , Z V , mm 6 m −3 ); the differential reflectivity factor ( Z DR , dimensionless), which is defined as the ratio of Z H to Z V ; and the propagation differential phase shift

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Augusto C. V. Getirana, Aaron Boone, Dai Yamazaki, Bertrand Decharme, Fabrice Papa, and Nelly Mognard

within a grid cell as represented in HyMAP. The runoff and baseflow generated by an LSM pass through the surface water or groundwater linear reservoirs, respectively, and then are routed using a kinematic wave formulation through a prescribed river network to oceans or inland seas. The river network is represented by a river channel reservoir and a floodplain reservoir in each grid cell. Similar to CaMa–Flood, river channel and floodplain are treated as continuous reservoirs in that water spilling

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Deeptha Thattai, Björn Kjerfve, and W. D. Heyman

1. Introduction Large-scale atmospheric circulation and local processes influence climate, which is the state of weather averaged over months or years ( Rasmusson et al. 1992 ). Local controls on climate include topography, vegetation, land–ocean interaction, land use, and catchment geology. Climatic processes are characterized by temperature and rainfall variability and affect humans directly through influence on soil, agriculture, hydrological processes, and water availability. At least

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Andrew Hoell, Andrea E. Gaughan, Shraddhanand Shukla, and Tamuka Magadzire

1. Introduction Southern Africa precipitation during December–March (DJFM), the height of the rainy season, is closely related with variations of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO; e.g., Nicholson and Entekhabi 1986 ; Manatsa et al. 2015 ) and the subtropical Indian Ocean dipole (SIOD; Behera et al. 2000 ; Behera and Yamagata 2001 ; Reason 2001 ; Washington and Preston 2006 ) modes of climate variability. Further, recent research has shown that the combined effects of ENSO and SIOD

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Huancui Hu and Francina Dominguez

into the NAM region ( Douglas et al. 1993 ; Schmitz and Mullen 1996 ; Adams and Comrie 1997 ; Higgins et al. 1997 ; Bosilovich et al. 2003 ). However, the elevated topography of the SMO acts as a barrier for lower-level moisture that comes from the Gulf of Mexico and blocks it from entering the NAM region. Consequently, the Gulf of California (GOC) and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean are also important sources for NAM precipitation ( Hales 1972 ; Brenner 1974 ; Carleton 1986 ). One of the main

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Mark R. Jury

1. Introduction Understanding and predicting the Caribbean climate is important, because the densely populated coastal zones are vulnerable to sea level rise and temperature extremes associated with global warming, and storm surges and flood events from tropical cyclones and troughs ( Gable et al. 1990 ; Maul 1993 ; Peterson et al. 2002 ; Lewsey et al. 2004 ). Climatic features from North and South America, and from the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans meet in the Caribbean ( Fig. 1 ). Sea

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