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Man Kin Mak and John E. Walsh

242 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOLt~M~.33On the Relative Intensities of Sea and Land Breezes MA~ Km M^K ~ Jor~N E. WALS~Laboratory for A tmo'spher~c Research, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801(Manuscript received 4 August 1975, in revised form 29 October 1975)ABSTRACT It is postulated that the observed difference in the intensities of sea and land breezes arises primarilyfrom the diurnal

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David L. T. Anderson and Julian P. McCreary

sea surface temperature. Some of thesolutions involve land as well as ocean; in that case Q over land is specified externally and is not influencedby ocean temperature. The atmosphere is always cyclic in .longitude, but three different ocean-land configurations are considered:a) a zonally unbounded, cyclic ocean with no land; b) a bounded ocean with convection over land strong tothe west; and c) a bounded ocean with convection over land strong to the east. Case b resembles thesituation in the

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Zhongfeng Xu, Congbin Fu, and Yongfu Qian

1. Introduction Land–sea distribution (LSD), orography, and land cover strongly impact the monsoon circulation and precipitation by altering the exchange of energy, momentum, and water between the underlying surface and the atmosphere. LSD and orography play different roles in the Asian monsoon system. The effects of an idealized LSD and the Tibetan Plateau on the Asian monsoon circulation have been discussed in Dirmeyer (1998) , Chou (2003) , and Liang et al. (2005 , 2006) . They found

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Ning Zeng, J. David Neelin, and Chia Chou

capacity, F rad s = S ↓ s − S ↑ s + R ↓ s − R ↑ s is downward net radiation at surface, E is the total evaporation, and H is the sensible heat flux. A small heat capacity C s leads to a damping timescale on the order of 1 h, so on timescales longer than a day, one has F rad s − E − H ≈ 0. This flux zero condition has been used explicitly by some early GCMs, and it imposes arguably the most important control on land surface–atmosphere interaction ( Zeng and Neelin 1999 ; NZ). The

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Luis Garcia-Carreras, Douglas J. Parker, and John H. Marsham

convective systems. Observations of the initiation of a mesoscale convective system via the interaction between a gravity wave propagating from a remote mature storm and soil-moisture patches provide one example of the potential interactions between mesoscale and synoptic processes ( Taylor et al. 2010 ). An evaluation of the impact of the land surface on rainfall will also be of particular interest, as this provides the main feedback from the atmosphere to the land surface, both at the diurnal and

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Kevin Hamilton

VOL. 39, NO. 3 JOURNAL OF THE ATM'OSPHERIC SCIENCES MARCH 1982The Effect of Solar Tides on the General Circulation of the Martian Atmosphere KEVIN HAMILTONNational Center for Atmospheric Researchfi Boulder. CO 80307(Manuscript received 31 August 1981, in final form 1'6 November 1981)ABSTRACT The mean flow accelerations induced by solar tides in the Martian atmosphere have been calculated usingseparable tidal theory

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R. David Baker, Gerald Schubert, and Philip W. Jones

18–25 min. The waves are vertically trapped by the two convection layers with horizontal wave propagation in both directions. Interaction between the two convection layers in the absence of mean wind shear is minimal. Average cloud-level penetration extends down to roughly 43-km altitude, while lower-atmosphere entrainment reaches up to 34-km altitude. However, the value of eddy diffusion used in this simulation is 155 m 2 s −1 , an upper bound on turbulent diffusion by small-scale eddies in

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Dehai Luo

the planetary–synoptic-scale interaction is included, one not only finds a realistic blocking circulation ( Fig. 4c ), but also a realistic change in the modulated synoptic-scale eddies ( Fig. 4b ). Although Figs. 4c and 5c are highly idealized, this kind of blocking structure is usually observed in the real atmosphere ( Luo et al. 2001 , their Fig. 1). Thus, the synoptic–planetary-scale interaction is a most important contributor to the change of synoptic-scale eddies associated with the

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Yu Du and Richard Rotunno

during the Joint Air–Sea Monsoon Interaction Experiment (JASMINE; Webster et al. 2002 ). Gille et al. (2005) , using four-times-daily sea surface winds, found that the diurnal perturbations of sea surface winds propagate progressively offshore at speeds ranging from 2 to 15 m s −1 , resembling gravity waves. Yang and Slingo (2001) using brightness temperatures from multiple satellites, found that a strong signal over land in the tropics, such as in the diurnal cycles of convection, cloudiness and

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Joseph J. Barsugli and David S. Battisti

layer ocean model. The model was designed to minimize variability in the Tropics so that the variability due to intrinsic midlatitude atmosphere–ocean interactions could be isolated. B95 showed that the strong enhancement of thermal variance (defined as variance in the temperature and associated thermal wind fields) due to coupling occurs mainly for timescales longer than the e -folding decay time for a mixed layer temperature anomaly, τ ML , which is approximately 4 months for that numerical

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