Search Results

You are looking at 111 - 120 of 673 items for :

  • Cloud forcing x
  • Journal of Physical Oceanography x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Shengquan Tang, Hans von Storch, and Xueen Chen

/N ratio in the climatic system. The challenge of discriminating between the signal related to some forcing of interest, and the noise, which is generated internally, has been recognized in the global modeling communities for almost 50 years—with significant consequences for numerical experimentation and evaluation of observed variations. The regional atmospheric modeling communities, however, seem to have overseen the issue for a long time. Only in the late 1990s, was the regional atmospheric modeling

Open access
A. Graham, D. K. Woolf, and A. J. Hall

1. Introduction A better understanding of the form and effects of breaking surface waves is paramount if budgets and predictions of air–sea exchanges of momentum and gas are to be made more accurate. The observations described reveal the acoustic backscatter from bubbles generated in clouds in the upper few meters of the sea by wind waves as they break. They are derived from an active high-frequency sonar system deployed on the seabed at a coastal site 18 m deep in the southern North Sea. The

Full access
S. A. Thorpe

19 20 2~ 30 tire (minutes) FiG. 1. Sonograph showing range of acoustic targets versus time made from a sonar pointing across the wind direction in wind speeds of13 m s-~. The bands are due to linear clouds of bubbles in the surface convergence zones and neighboring descending current regions ofLangmuir circulation cells. Convergent patterns are seen, for example at A. These patterns may be seen more clearly by viewing the

Full access
A. Birol Kara, Alan J. Wallcraft, and Harley E. Hurlburt

availability of a remotely sensed diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm ( k 490 ) dataset ( McClain et al. 1998 ), it is now possible to determine the ocean turbidity at high spatial resolution and use it as part of the heat flux forcing in a Black Sea OGCM. By using such a dataset, the time-varying solar penetration schemes (e.g., Morel and Antonie 1994 ; Nakamoto et al. 2001 ; Murtugudde et al. 2002 ; Morel and Maritorena 2001 ) can treat attenuation as a continuous quantity, which is an

Full access
Xingchi Wang and Tobias Kukulka

1. Introduction The ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL) is essential for air–sea interaction processes because OSBL turbulence transports heat, salt, momentum, and suspended and dissolved matter. OSBL turbulence is driven by wind and waves ( Thorpe 2004 ; Sullivan and McWilliams 2010 ; D’Asaro 2014 ). Many idealized process studies of the OSBL assume that the forcing wind and waves are constant and aligned. However, typical ocean conditions are often characterized by highly variable wind and

Restricted access
Michael M. Whitney, David S. Ullman, and Daniel L. Codiga

1. Introduction Studying the spatial patterns, time variability, and forcing factors for subtidal exchange is central to understanding estuaries. Along- and across-estuary subtidal exchange influences physical water properties (e.g., temperature and salinity), biochemical properties (e.g., dissolved oxygen), cycling of nutrients, and contaminant distribution. The nature of subtidal exchange varies among estuaries. This study investigates subtidal exchange near the mouth of Long Island Sound

Full access
Hong Sik Min and Yign Noh

describes the formation of LC in terms of instability brought on by the interaction of the Stokes drift with the wind-driven surface shear current. The instability is initiated by an additional “vortex force” term in the momentum equation as u s × ω , where u s is the Stokes drift velocity and ω is the vorticity. Assuming a constant frictional velocity u ∗, for surface waves with a characteristic wavenumber k and the Stokes drift velocity at the surface U s , the occurrence of LC in a laminar

Full access
Ian Eames

water waves has been studied by Grinshpun et al. (2000) , who considered the action of a linear drag force on small particles close to neutral buoyancy. Dispersed material in the ocean (consisting of organic matter, larvae, bubbles, sediment) has a relative density comparable to or less than water. Typical values for the density of material that may be found in the ocean are 1076–1102 kg m −3 for larvae [which have diameters of 126–194 μ m, estimated from the fall speed given by Krug and Zimmer

Full access
Daniele Iudicone, Gurvan Madec, and Trevor J. McDougall

′. In fact, it is a practical unit for γ with values O (20–30 kg m −3 )]. Fig . 2. Mean shortwave radiation (W m −2 ) at the base of the mixed layer in (top) July and (bottom) January. Solar irradiance at the surface is derived from the standard bulk formulas and climatological cloud cover used to force the model (see Iudicone et al. 2008 ). Solar irradiance is assumed to be attenuated as in the standard clear-water double-exponential formulation, with e -foldings of 0.35 and 23 m for the near

Full access
Stephen G. Yeager and William G. Large

in Doney et al. (2003) . The primary dataset is the 40-yr cycle (1958–97) of 6-hourly winds, and near surface temperature and humidity from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)–NCAR reanalysis ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ). Radiative forcing is derived from monthly satellite estimates of cloud fraction ( Rossow and Schiffer 1991 ) and insolation ( Bishop and Rossow 1991 ; Bishop et al. 1997 ), available from July 1983 through June 1991. A monthly climatology of cloud and insolation

Full access