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Ayman Suleiman, Jawad Al-Bakri, Mohammad Duqqah, and Rich Crago

of eddy diffusivity, Pr is the Prandtl number, and the Reynold’s number that is appropriate for transport through a leaf boundary layer is Re * = u * L f / ν , where L f is the characteristic length scale of a leaf and ν is the kinematic viscosity. In (5) , w is a weighting coefficient, describing the importance of T fh and T fg in determining the radiometric surface temperature seen by a radiometer, Similarly, W is a weighting coefficient, describing the relative

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Ying Huang, M. Suhyb Salama, Zhongbo Su, Rogier van der Velde, Donghai Zheng, Maarten S. Krol, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, and Yunxuan Zhou

formulation is with , where is the Z95 empirical coefficient, is the roughness Reynolds number, is the friction velocity (m s −1 ), ν is the kinematic molecular viscosity (taken as 1.5 × 10 −5 m 2 s −1 ), and . The surface exchange coefficient for heat and water vapor transfers are parameterized as functions of roughness lengths by Chen et al. (1997) as follows: where is the roughness length for momentum transport (m); is the roughness length for heat transport; and are the

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Shinju Park, Sung-Hwa Jung, and GyuWon Lee

. , Gourley J. J. , Flamig Z. , Morris K. R. , and Cao O. , 2011 : Cross validation of spaceborne radar and ground polarimetric radar aided by polarimetric echo classification of hydrometeor types . J. Appl Meteor. Climatol. , 50 , 1389 – 1402 , doi: 10.1175/2011JAMC2622.1 . Yuter, S. E. , and Houze R. A. Jr. , 1995 : Three-dimensional kinematic and microphysical evolution of Florida cumulonimbus. Part II: Frequency distributions of vertical velocity, reflectivity, and differential

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Shupo Ma and Libo Zhou

other was from Chen and Zhang (2009 , hereinafter C09 ). In the Y08 scheme, z 0h is calculated as follows: where ν is the air kinematic viscosity, u * is the friction velocity, and θ * is the temperature scale. The C09 scheme relates the z 0h to canopy height via z 0m , based on an AmeriFlux dataset. In this study, we used the “alternative formula” of the C09 scheme, as shown in Eq. (11) , which was also applied in the Noah land model, the WRF Model, and several other studies

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A. L. Hirsch, A. J. Pitman, and V. Haverd

capacity, f root, m is the fraction of root mass in the soil layer, and β is a model parameter between 0 and 1. The leaf boundary layer resistance (i.e., r bl ) is given by where ν is the kinematic viscosity of air (m 2 s −1 ), U l is the ambient wind speed (m s −1 ), κ is the molecular diffusivity in air, l is the leaf or element cross stream dimension, and A b is a dimensionless coefficient for single-sided transfer on a flat plate ( A b = 0.7). REFERENCES Abramowitz, G. , 2012

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Murray D. MacKay

across the thermocline and thereby enhancing entrainment. Following Spigel et al. (1986) , the finite width of the thermocline resulting from billowing can be expressed as The kinematic effects of billowing are approximated here by assuming a linear temperature variation throughout the thermocline layer. This is simpler than the approach of Spigel et al. (1986) , who also include the energetics of billowing. Dissipation within the mixed layer is represented by and the transport of TKE to the

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Nusrat Yussouf, Katie A. Wilson, Steven M. Martinaitis, Humberto Vergara, Pamela L. Heinselman, and Jonathan J. Gourley

representations of the rainfall–runoff process to generate products relevant to the occurrence of flash floods including maxima of streamflow, unit streamflow (streamflow normalized by upstream drainage area), and soil saturation. For this particular study, an adaptation of the water balance component of the Coupled Routing and Excess Storage (CREST; Wang et al. 2011 ) and the kinematic wave approximation of the Saint-Venant equations of one-dimensional open channel flow within EF5 were used. MRMS radar

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Xin He, Julian Koch, Chunmiao Zheng, Thomas Bøvith, and Karsten H. Jensen

level at the eastern boundary of the catchment. Agriculture is the predominant land use with around 70% areal coverage. The hydrological model of the Skjern catchment is based on the MIKE Système Hydrologique Européen (MIKE SHE) code ( Abbott et al. 1986 ). The modeling system consists of fully coupled modules of 3D groundwater flow based on Darcy's equation, 1D unsaturated flow based on Richards’ equation, 1D river routing based on the kinematic wave approximation of St. Venant equations, and 2D

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Tomoki Ushiyama, Takahiro Sayama, Yuya Tatebe, Susumu Fujioka, and Kazuhiko Fukami

saturated subsurface flow. This model assumes the water surface slope as the hydraulic gradient, which is different from the kinematic wave models that assume that the hydraulic gradient is equal to the topographic slope. The infiltration model used in this study is adjusted to the Kabul River basin, which has plateaus and valleys surrounded by mountains with steep and rugged mountain slopes maintained by strong physical weathering. The cover soil category is Leptosol, which is characterized by a very

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Lintao Li, Albertus J. Dolman, and Zongxue Xu

the global water cycle. Part II: Moisture transports between Earth’s ocean basins and river catchments . J. Hydrometeor. , 6 , 961 – 984 , doi: 10.1175/JHM470.1 . Stohl, A. , Wotawa G. , Seibert P. , and Kromp-Kolb H. , 1995 : Interpolation errors in wind fields as a function of spatial and temporal resolution and their impact on different types of kinematic trajectories . J. Appl. Meteor. , 34 , 2149 – 2165 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(1995)034<2149:IEIWFA>2.0.CO;2 . Sun, B. , and

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