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Lee Tryhorn

miles of estuaries ( DEC 2000 ). Stormwater runoff is also a major culprit in urban flooding and changes to the precipitation regime are intensifying this problem. Increases in the frequency and magnitude of extreme rainfall events have been documented in New York State ( Fig. 1 ). These changes are among the largest seen within the United States ( DeGaetano 2009 ). Climate change projections suggest that these increases will continue ( Frumhoff et al. 2007 ). Changes in land use are also likely to

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Joshua J. Hatzis, Jennifer Koch, and Harold E. Brooks

. , 9 , 109 – 123 , https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-16-0041.1 . 10.1175/WCAS-D-16-0041.1 Strader , S. M. , W. S. Ashley , T. J. Pingel , and A. J. Krmenec , 2017b : Projected 21st century changes in tornado exposure, risk, and disaster potential . Climatic Change , 141 , 301 – 313 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-017-1905-4 . 10.1007/s10584-017-1905-4 Strader , S. M. , W. S. Ashley , T. J. Pingel , and A. J. Krmenec , 2018 : How land use alters the tornado disaster landscape . Appl

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Jagadish Thaker, Edward Maibach, Anthony Leiserowitz, Xiaoquan Zhao, and Peter Howe

variance in the outcome variable that can be attributed to the independent variable(s) of interest. Twelve variables were used as control variables in this study: respondent’s sex, age, income levels, educational attainment, caste groups (as identified by the Government of India), source of drinking water, payment for water, time to collect water, access to sanitation, agricultural land ownership, house type, and location of the respondent’s household. For sex, dummy codes were used such that female

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Benjamin Sultan, Bruno Barbier, Jeanne Fortilus, Serigne Modou Mbaye, and Grégoire Leclerc

predictability of seasonal climate fluctuations has been achieved for many parts of the world ( Hansen 2002 ) by using comprehensive coupled models of the atmosphere, oceans, and land surface ( Palmer et al. 2004 ) or regional statistical schemes ( Ward 1998 ; Fontaine et al. 1999 ; Ogallo et al. 2000 ; Ward et al. 2004 ). In addition, the general circulation models are now able to produce plausible long-run climate change scenarios in response to various evolutions of greenhouse gas concentrations

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Richard Bernknopf, David Brookshire, Yusuke Kuwayama, Molly Macauley, Matthew Rodell, Alexandra Thompson, Peter Vail, and Benjamin Zaitchik

releases, NASA scientists developed GRACE-DA ( Zaitchik et al. 2008 ). GRACE-DA uses ensemble Kalman smoother-type data assimilation to integrate GRACE data with ground- and space-based meteorological inputs (precipitation, solar radiation, etc.) within a Catchment land surface model ( Koster et al. 2000 ). The GRACE-DA system produces estimates of soil moisture and groundwater storage variations that are used to generate probabilistic drought indicators. These indicators are defined relative to the

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Siri Veland

Papua New Guinea administrators were on a tight time schedule to set up the systems of the new government. In this same time frame, the Panguna mine lease was also being negotiated between land holders and Rio Tinto. Rio Tinto negotiators used maps to determine the extent of copper ore around the township of Bougainville, and to make agreements with town representatives over royalties, lease costs, and the lease term ( Howitt 2001 ). The lease appeared progressive for its time, being among the first

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Ernest Agee and Lindsey Taylor

a much simpler form (because the land area of each state cancels out): or As noted earlier, an increasing DPI value implies that the tornado death rate is increasing at a faster rate than the population growth (and a decreasing DPI implies that, even with a population growth rate, the tornado death rate is not as fast, or is even decreasing). The DPI values were calculated using Eq. (2) for each of the 21 states in the region of interest and are presented in the results discussed in the next

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Alicia Azpeleta Tarancón, Yeon-Su Kim, Thora Padilla, Peter Z. Fulé, and Andrew J. Sánchez Meador

section, the participants were asked to provide, in an open-ended question, their perspectives toward the expected changes in MATL ecosystem services under climate change. To represent the impacts of climate change to ecosystem services in MATL, we provided a figure that represented potential changes in land cover from 2014 to 2094 ( Fig. 3 ). We used the most recent forest inventory data to characterize the land cover in 2014 and simulated a mild climate change scenario (RCP4.5) in the future (2034

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Adrienne Marshall, Van Butsic, and John Harte

snowmelt ( Stewart et al. 2004 ). CT is commonly used in studies of climate change impacts on snowmelt-dominated systems and provides a time-integrated perspective of flow pulses and the distribution of flow throughout the year ( He et al. 2013 ). To assess visitor responses to temperature, the TopoWx dataset was used. TopoWx is a gridded, 800-m temperature product that incorporates remotely sensed land skin temperature and climate station data and is designed for use in spatially explicit hydrological

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Ryan P. Crompton, K. John McAneney, Keping Chen, Roger A. Pielke Jr., and Katharine Haynes

risk at Melbourne’s urban fringe, Buxton et al. (2011) argue that vulnerability has increased because of the failure of land use planning regulations. We agree with this assessment. An analysis of each of the major bushfires over the past five decades (including the 1967 Hobart fires, the 1983 Ash Wednesday fires, the 1994 Sydney fires, and the 2009 Black Saturday fires) shows that Australia has a history of development in high risk areas. About 80%–90% of destroyed buildings in major bushfires

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