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Joseph Skitka, J. B. Marston, and Baylor Fox-Kemper

forcing is based on McWilliams et al. (1997) . The domain size and resolution have been reduced in this work, while most other case parameters are identical (see Fig. 5b ). Langmuir circulation is modeled using the phase-averaged Craik–Leibovich equations ( Craik 1977 ), which are given in Eq. (26) . The parameters used for this case are provided in Table 2 , where u * = τ 1 / 2 ρ 0 − ⁡ ( 1 / 2 ) is the friction velocity, Re * = ⁡ ( u * L m ) / ν z , and the Langmuir number is defined as (32

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Eric D. Skyllingstad, W. D. Smyth, and G. B. Crawford

is a critical step in modeling changes in the SST. For example, if surface waves cause increased transfer of mean current kinetic energy into turbulent kinetic energy through Langmuir circulation, then the sea state may cause more OBL cooling because of increased entrainment at the mixed layer base. This might not be the case, however, if most of the surface wave effects generate small-scale turbulence that is quickly dissipated in the upper OBL. Thus, determining the importance of the various

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Peng Wang, James C. McWilliams, and Yusuke Uchiyama

USGS–NASA Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager and distributed by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group. In the far offshore, yellow algae slicks are gathered into shore-normal windrows by Langmuir circulation. In the nearshore, yellow algae are accumulated into a shore-parallel band located at about 2 km from the shore. This algae band is more than 10 km alongshore in about 10 m-deep water (inner shelf), and it implies that there exists an alongshore front. The murky water between the shore and

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Dong Wang, Tobias Kukulka, Brandon G. Reichl, Tetsu Hara, and Isaac Ginis

.1175/1520-0485(1994)024<2546:MWETIT>2.0.CO;2 Craik , A. D. D. , and S. Leibovich , 1976 : A rational model for Langmuir circulations . J. Fluid Mech. , 73 , 401 – 426 , https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112076001420 . 10.1017/S0022112076001420 Fan , Y. , I. Ginis , T. Hara , C. W. Wright , and E. J. Walsh , 2009 : Numerical simulations and observations of surface wave fields under an extreme tropical cyclone . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 39 , 2097 – 2116 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JPO4224.1 . 10.1175/2009JPO

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Xuefeng Zhang, Peter C. Chu, Wei Li, Chang Liu, Lianxin Zhang, Caixia Shao, Xiaoshuang Zhang, Guofang Chao, and Yuxin Zhao

://doi.org/10.1029/2000JC900035 . 10.1029/2000JC900035 Craig , P. D. , and M. L. Banner , 1994 : Modeling wave-enhanced turbulence in the ocean surface layer . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 24 , 2546 – 2559 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1994)024<2546:MWETIT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1994)024<2546:MWETIT>2.0.CO;2 Craik , A. D. D. , and S. Leibovich , 1976 : A rational model for Langmuir circulation . J. Fluid Mech. , 73 , 401 – 426 , https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112076001420 . 10.1017/S

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Lars Czeschel and Carsten Eden

://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49711247402 . 10.1002/qj.49711247402 Craik , A. D. D. , and S. Leibovich , 1976 : A rational model for Langmuir circulations . J. Fluid Mech. , 73 , 401 – 426 , https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112076001420 . 10.1017/S0022112076001420 D’Asaro , E. A. , 1985 : The energy flux from the wind to near-inertial motions in the surface mixed layer . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 15 , 1043 – 1059 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1985)015<1043:TEFFTW>2.0.CO;2 . 10

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Bruno Deremble and W. K. Dewar

) ], one obtains The parameter λ remains to be specified. This equation is similar to those appearing in early slab mixed layer models ( Pollard et al. 1972 ; Cushman-Roisin 1981 ; Price et al. 1986 ). The simple form of the above equation should be contrasted with the nature of surface dissipation, which involves complex phenomena like breaking waves ( Thorpe et al. 2003 ; Gerbi et al. 2009 ), turbulence, convection, and Langmuir circulation ( Smith 1998 , 2001 ; Thorpe 2004 ). Li et al. (2005

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Gregory P. Gerbi, Samuel E. Kastner, and Genevieve Brett

.1175/1520-0485(1994)024<2546:MWETIT>2.0.CO;2 . Craik , A. D. D. , and S. Leibovich , 1976 : A rational model for Langmuir circulations . J. Fluid Mech. , 73 , 401 – 426 , doi: 10.1017/S0022112076001420 . D’Asaro , E. A. , 2014 : Turbulence in the upper-ocean mixed layer . Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. , 6 , 101 – 115 , doi: 10.1146/annurev-marine-010213-135138 . D’Asaro , E. A. , J. Thomson , A. Y. Shcherbina , R. R. Harcourt , M. F. Cronin , M. A. Hemer , and B. Fox-Kemper , 2014 : Quantifying upper

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Alexander W. Fisher, Lawrence P. Sanford, Malcolm E. Scully, and Steven E. Suttles

breaking waves into the oceanic surface layer through a combination of u-shaped vortices generated near the surface by whitecapping waves ( Melville et al. 2002 ; Scully et al. 2016 ) and larger-scale Langmuir circulations that can occupy the full depth of the surface mixed layer ( Plueddemann and Weller 1999 ; D’Asaro 2001 ; Gerbi et al. 2008 ; Scully et al. 2015 ). It is generally accepted that Langmuir turbulence arises from a straining of the vorticity field generated beneath breaking waves by

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Ann E. Gargett and Dana K. Savidge

initial impetus for this work was to determine the effect of a dominant semidiurnal tide on Langmuir circulations, further separation of inertial oscillations from tidal signals was not carried out. Should such separation be required, rotary methods exist (spectral and empirical orthogonal function analysis), subject to the standard limitations imposed on spectral accuracy by record length ( Gonella 1972 ; Denbo and Allen 1984 ). In what follows, the use of the terms fluctuation , tide , and mean

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