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Timothy H. Raupach and Alexis Berne

warm, moist air are produced over the Mediterranean Sea and pushed by southerly flow onto the land, where topography triggers convective activity ( Frei and Schär 1998 ; Miniscloux et al. 2001 ; Delrieu et al. 2005 ; Ricard et al. 2012 ). Such synoptic systems are often quasi-stationary, leading to events that can last from hours to days and produce high rainfall totals ( Ricard et al. 2012 ). These broad meteorological conditions are well understood ( Lin et al. 2001 ; Nuissier et al. 2011

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Sjoukje Philip, Sarah F. Kew, Geert Jan van Oldenborgh, Emma Aalbers, Robert Vautard, Friederike Otto, Karsten Haustein, Florence Habets, and Roop Singh

. The highest 3-day rainfall occurred over 29–31 May (see Fig. 1 ). Over these three days, moisture contributing to this rainfall converged from multiple sources and moved into the region mainly from the east, circulating around the low pressure system. Potential source regions include the Mediterranean, Baltic, subtropical Atlantic, eastern Atlantic, and moisture recycling over continental Europe. Fig . 1. Precipitation averaged in western Europe (40°–60°N, 15°W–25°E) over 29–31 May 2016 (mm day

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Yagmur Derin, Emmanouil Anagnostou, Alexis Berne, Marco Borga, Brice Boudevillain, Wouter Buytaert, Che-Hao Chang, Guy Delrieu, Yang Hong, Yung Chia Hsu, Waldo Lavado-Casimiro, Bastian Manz, Semu Moges, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Dejene Sahlu, Franco Salerno, Juan-Pablo Rodríguez-Sánchez, Humberto J. Vergara, and Koray K. Yilmaz

, kriging-based area interpolation maps of the region were created ( Delrieu et al. 2014 ). Rain gauge elevations range between 140 and 1567 m where precipitation increase can be observed from Fig. 3b . The region has a largely Mediterranean climate. Annual rainfall totals range from about 500 mm near the sea to 2000 mm over the mountains. In the Mediterranean part of the region, temperatures are mild in winter (e.g., average maximum temperature is 11°C in Nîmes in January) and hot in summer (31°C in

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Huancui Hu and Francina Dominguez

. Rev. , 128 , 2983 – 2989 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<2983:TRBTEW>2.0.CO;2 . Gat, J. R. , and Carmi I. , 1970 : Evolution of isotopic composition of atmospheric waters in Mediterranean Sea area . J. Geophys. Res. , 75 , 3039 – 3048 , doi: 10.1029/JC075i015p03039 . Gimeno, L. , Drumond A. , Nieto R. , Trigo R. M. , and Stohl A. , 2010 : On the origin of continental precipitation . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 37 , L13804 , doi: 10.1029/2010GL043712 . Gimeno, L. , and

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H. W. ter Maat, E. J. Moors, R. W. A. Hutjes, A. A. M. Holtslag, and A. J. Dolman

reasonably uniform, with an average monthly precipitation sum at the Veluwe of 72 mm. Fig . 1. Sum of yearly precipitation (mm) as a climatological mean (1981–2010). The Veluwe is enclosed by the red square. From Fig. 1 , we can also discover a second precipitation maximum in the western part of the Netherlands. It is thought that both these maxima have different sources of origin. The precipitation maximum in the western part is mostly thought to be caused by the sea surface temperature and is expected

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

of the period, it is clear that ensemble spread has been reduced in the A case relative to the AL case over many of the continental areas. Over ocean, there is an increase in spread over some of the coastal seas, including the Mediterranean and North Seas. I do not have an explanation as to why decreased precipitation spread over land should lead to increased spread over adjacent oceans. Over open ocean, there are equal numbers of small patches of increased and decreased variance that reflect the

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Ingo Schlüter and Gerd Schädler

over central Europe] following a trough over central Europe [Trog Mitteleuropa (TRM), trough over central Europe]. Two successive extreme precipitation events at the beginning of August 2002 led to disastrous flooding in Germany, Austria, and the Czech Republic. During the period 6–7 August, widespread and heavy precipitation struck east Bavaria, Bohemia, and Austria due to a depression that carried warm and humid air masses from the Mediterranean Sea over the Alps to Hungary and the Black Sea

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Yusri Yusup and Heping Liu

. 2003 ): where is air density (kg m −3 ), is latent heat of vaporization (=2.54 × 10 6 J kg −1 ), U is mean wind speed (m s −1 ) at 4 m above the water surface, and is specific heat of air (J K −1 kg −1 ). Note that specific humidity q is used to calculate while our discussion in the subsequent sections uses vapor pressure, following previous studies ( Zhang and Liu 2014 ). The bulk transfer relations are widely used in determining turbulent fluxes across air–sea interface in numerical

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Eleanor J. Burke

, drought occurring 100% of the time. Soil moisture and precipitation drought occur less frequently than PDSI drought, with a tendency for soil moisture drought to be more frequent than precipitation drought. Fig . 2. The subset of Giorgi and Francisco (2000) regions used within the analysis: CNA = central North America; CAM = Central America; AMZ = Amazon; WAF = western Africa; SAF = South Africa; MED = Mediterranean; SAS = southern Asia; SEA = Southeast Asia; NAU = northern Australia; SAU = southern

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Nurit Agam (Ninari) and P. R. Berliner

direct absorption). Moreover, the gains in soil water content during the night are compared to the dew amounts recorded by the Hiltner balance, and the losses and gains of water in terms of easily measurable environmental parameters are parameterized. 2. Materials and methods The measurements were carried out at the Wadi Mashash Experimental Farm in the northern Negev, Israel (31°08′N, 34°53′E; 400 m MSL, 60 km from the Mediterranean Sea). Rainfall events occur between October and April, and the mean

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