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Liming Zhu, Junzhi Liu, A-Xing Zhu, Meiling Sheng, and Zheng Duan

) pointed out that the low-level convergence by land/sea in southern China was the main reason for the prevailing nocturnal rainfall on the windward slope of the mountainous area in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. But over large-scale mountains and adjacent plains or basins in the west and north of China, many researchers also pointed out that propagation of the diurnal rainfall peak from late afternoon to night is strongly associated with the thermally driven regional mountain–plains solenoid (MPS

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Alexandre B. Pieri, Jost von Hardenberg, Antonio Parodi, and Antonello Provenzale

different parameterizations such as spatial resolution, microphysics, and convective schemes is an essential step before embarking on the use of model outputs to assess the impact of climate change. In this framework, Europe represents an especially challenging region for modeling precipitation, since it is exposed to intense synoptic perturbations from the Atlantic and to moisture-rich inflows from the Mediterranean and is characterized by complex orographic features. Climatology of the European region

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Timothy H. Raupach and Alexis Berne

warm, moist air are produced over the Mediterranean Sea and pushed by southerly flow onto the land, where topography triggers convective activity ( Frei and Schär 1998 ; Miniscloux et al. 2001 ; Delrieu et al. 2005 ; Ricard et al. 2012 ). Such synoptic systems are often quasi-stationary, leading to events that can last from hours to days and produce high rainfall totals ( Ricard et al. 2012 ). These broad meteorological conditions are well understood ( Lin et al. 2001 ; Nuissier et al. 2011

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Sjoukje Philip, Sarah F. Kew, Geert Jan van Oldenborgh, Emma Aalbers, Robert Vautard, Friederike Otto, Karsten Haustein, Florence Habets, and Roop Singh

. The highest 3-day rainfall occurred over 29–31 May (see Fig. 1 ). Over these three days, moisture contributing to this rainfall converged from multiple sources and moved into the region mainly from the east, circulating around the low pressure system. Potential source regions include the Mediterranean, Baltic, subtropical Atlantic, eastern Atlantic, and moisture recycling over continental Europe. Fig . 1. Precipitation averaged in western Europe (40°–60°N, 15°W–25°E) over 29–31 May 2016 (mm day

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Yagmur Derin, Emmanouil Anagnostou, Alexis Berne, Marco Borga, Brice Boudevillain, Wouter Buytaert, Che-Hao Chang, Guy Delrieu, Yang Hong, Yung Chia Hsu, Waldo Lavado-Casimiro, Bastian Manz, Semu Moges, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Dejene Sahlu, Franco Salerno, Juan-Pablo Rodríguez-Sánchez, Humberto J. Vergara, and Koray K. Yilmaz

, kriging-based area interpolation maps of the region were created ( Delrieu et al. 2014 ). Rain gauge elevations range between 140 and 1567 m where precipitation increase can be observed from Fig. 3b . The region has a largely Mediterranean climate. Annual rainfall totals range from about 500 mm near the sea to 2000 mm over the mountains. In the Mediterranean part of the region, temperatures are mild in winter (e.g., average maximum temperature is 11°C in Nîmes in January) and hot in summer (31°C in

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

of the period, it is clear that ensemble spread has been reduced in the A case relative to the AL case over many of the continental areas. Over ocean, there is an increase in spread over some of the coastal seas, including the Mediterranean and North Seas. I do not have an explanation as to why decreased precipitation spread over land should lead to increased spread over adjacent oceans. Over open ocean, there are equal numbers of small patches of increased and decreased variance that reflect the

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H. W. ter Maat, E. J. Moors, R. W. A. Hutjes, A. A. M. Holtslag, and A. J. Dolman

reasonably uniform, with an average monthly precipitation sum at the Veluwe of 72 mm. Fig . 1. Sum of yearly precipitation (mm) as a climatological mean (1981–2010). The Veluwe is enclosed by the red square. From Fig. 1 , we can also discover a second precipitation maximum in the western part of the Netherlands. It is thought that both these maxima have different sources of origin. The precipitation maximum in the western part is mostly thought to be caused by the sea surface temperature and is expected

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Huancui Hu and Francina Dominguez

. Rev. , 128 , 2983 – 2989 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<2983:TRBTEW>2.0.CO;2 . Gat, J. R. , and Carmi I. , 1970 : Evolution of isotopic composition of atmospheric waters in Mediterranean Sea area . J. Geophys. Res. , 75 , 3039 – 3048 , doi: 10.1029/JC075i015p03039 . Gimeno, L. , Drumond A. , Nieto R. , Trigo R. M. , and Stohl A. , 2010 : On the origin of continental precipitation . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 37 , L13804 , doi: 10.1029/2010GL043712 . Gimeno, L. , and

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Ingo Schlüter and Gerd Schädler

over central Europe] following a trough over central Europe [Trog Mitteleuropa (TRM), trough over central Europe]. Two successive extreme precipitation events at the beginning of August 2002 led to disastrous flooding in Germany, Austria, and the Czech Republic. During the period 6–7 August, widespread and heavy precipitation struck east Bavaria, Bohemia, and Austria due to a depression that carried warm and humid air masses from the Mediterranean Sea over the Alps to Hungary and the Black Sea

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Yusri Yusup and Heping Liu

. 2003 ): where is air density (kg m −3 ), is latent heat of vaporization (=2.54 × 10 6 J kg −1 ), U is mean wind speed (m s −1 ) at 4 m above the water surface, and is specific heat of air (J K −1 kg −1 ). Note that specific humidity q is used to calculate while our discussion in the subsequent sections uses vapor pressure, following previous studies ( Zhang and Liu 2014 ). The bulk transfer relations are widely used in determining turbulent fluxes across air–sea interface in numerical

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