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Wallace Hogsett and Da-Lin Zhang

associated with Typhoon Chanchu, from its incipient to typhoon stage, using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) final analysis (FNL) at 1.0° resolution and satellite observations; (ii) demonstrate that the general flow structures and organization of precipitation leading to the genesis of Chanchu could be reasonably duplicated by an 11-day cloud-resolving simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at the finest resolution of 2 km; and (iii) examine the

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Vanda Grubišić, Johannes Sachsperger, and Rui M. A. Caldeira

and oceanic wakes generated by Madeira and air–sea interaction in the Madeira Archipelago. To the best of our knowledge, the data presented here represents the first in situ high-resolution aerial measurements obtained within the wake of Madeira. Furthermore, high-resolution numerical simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model are used to explore dynamical aspects of the wake generation and its temporal evolution. In describing the generation and dynamical evolution of

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Laura A. Holt, M. Joan Alexander, Lawrence Coy, Andrea Molod, William Putman, and Steven Pawson

resolution, but has a very realistic representation of tropical precipitation and small-scale waves, providing a unique representation of tropical dynamics and associated gravity wave forcing for study. The paper is organized as follows. We describe the model in section 2 . We describe features of the model QBO-like oscillation and compare them to reanalyses in section 3 . Since the resolved waves that contribute to driving the QBO are generated by tropical precipitation variability, we evaluate

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David M. Romps and Zhiming Kuang

. , and J. Cuijpers , 1995 : Evaluation of parametric assumptions for shallow cumulus convection. J. Atmos. Sci. , 52 , 650 – 666 . Siebesma , A. , and Coauthors , 2003 : A large-eddy simulation intercomparison study of shallow cumulus convection. J. Atmos. Sci. , 60 , 1201 – 1219 . Tiedtke , M. , 1989 : A comprehensive mass flux scheme for cumulus parameterization in large-scale models. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 117 , 1779 – 1800 . Warner , J. , 1977 : Time variation of updraft and

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Rachel Honnert, Valéry Masson, and Fleur Couvreux

comparing modeled clouds and turbulence to LES. However, until now no universal law has been presented that would make it possible to evaluate the partitioning quantitatively. Fig . 1. From LES modeling to 1D modeling: in LES modeling, the largest eddies are explicitly represented. Eddies that are smaller than the mesh size are parameterized. The coarser the meshes are, the more the eddies are subgrid. The aim of this article is to quantify the resolved and subgrid parts of the turbulence at different

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Claudia Christine Stephan, Cornelia Strube, Daniel Klocke, Manfred Ern, Lars Hoffmann, Peter Preusse, and Hauke Schmidt

components of the atmospheric circulation system by adjusting free parameters of the different GW drag schemes (e.g., Garcia et al. 2017 ; Orr et al. 2010 ). Therefore, it is important to assess how well current convection-permitting GCMs are performing at reproducing observed features of GWMF and to understand how sensitive these features are to changes in model formulation as well as resolution. Moreover, a formal evaluation of the simulations against observational data is not a trivial task. We use

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G. Garland Lala, Eric Mandel, and James E. Jiusto

comprisingthe model, and evaluate its capability for forecasting the onset of fog from standard radiosonde weatherdata. Four case studies were considered that included both fog and no-fog occurrences. The variablesamined--initial surface temperature and moisture conditions, eddy exchange profiles, radiative flux divergence, and dew formation--were all found to influence critically the model's performance. Prediction offog occurrence and temperature were reasonably encouraging provided a judicious (though

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Robert Conrick, Clifford F. Mass, and Qi Zhong

simulated waves did influence model microphysics and precipitation. Future work will focus on describing, quantifying, and evaluating the simulated microphysical processes that operate in simulated waves. Acknowledgments This research was supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant AGS-1349847. The authors would also like to thank three anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions, as well as Hannah Barnes, Robert Houze, Lynn McMurdie, and Joe Zagrodnik for the productive

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J. Vanneste

generally small. A large time-scale separation leads to a weak coupling between the slow and fast components of the dynamics. For the atmosphere and oceans, which are forced mostly at low frequency, this has the consequence that the level of IGW activity often remains low; as a result, the dynamics can be represented accurately by balanced models, that is, models that filter out IGWs completely. This has been formalized by introducing the notion of slow manifolds, which are submanifolds of the state

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Sue Chen, Maria Flatau, Tommy G. Jensen, Toshiaki Shinoda, Jerome Schmidt, Paul May, James Cummings, Ming Liu, Paul E. Ciesielski, Christopher W. Fairall, Ren-Chieh Lien, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Nan-Hsun Chi, Simon de Szoeke, and James Edson

the time scale for the observed moisture resurgence in the post-MJO dry air mass prior to the subsequent MJO onset? What relative roles do diurnal ocean temperature anomalies and surface fluxes play in regulating or initiating the deep vapor resurgence? Do transient Kelvin, Rossby, mixed Rossby–gravity, and inertio-gravity waves impact the vapor resurgence? We begin with a description of the data and modeling methods used in section 2 . Analyses of observed in situ rawindsondes, surface flux, and

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