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R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, F. J. Schmidlin, and D. O'C. Starr

Cirrus II[First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment ] / SPECTRE ( Spectral Radiation Experiment) held near Coffeyville,Kansas, in November-December 1991; ATMIS I!(Atmospheric Moisture Intercomparison Study) heldat Wallops Island, Virginia, in July-August 1992; andCAMEX (Convection and Moisture Experiment)conducted at Wallops Island, Virginia, in SeptemberOctober 1993. Radiosondes manufactured by the AIR(Atmospheric Instrumentation Research) and

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J. C. Fankhauser, C. J. Biter, C. G. Mohr, and R. L. Vaughan

effectively through application of some form of radar or other remote sensingtechnology. One notable exception is the cloud baseinflow sector where the number and/or size of radartargets do not consistently provide detectable signal.In this important region it is necessary to obtaindirect measurements of airflow and moisture contentthrough systematic aircraft observation. Techniquesin the use of aircraft for this purpose were developedin the 1960's (Auer and Sand, 1966; Auer andMarwitz, 1968; Auer et al

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Ya-Chien Feng, Frédéric Fabry, and Tammy M. Weckwerth

1. Introduction and motivation High-resolution near-surface moisture is crucial to pursue knowledge of convective and boundary layer processes ( Weckwerth et al. 1999 ; Weckwerth 2000 ; Sherwood et al. 2010 ). From numerical model simulations and data analysis, convection initiation and quantitative precipitation forecasting are shown to be sensitive to accurate measurements of moisture and temperature variability at the surface and in the boundary layer (e.g., Zawadzki et al. 1981 ; Crook

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Le Van Thien, William A. Gallus Jr., Mark A. Olsen, and Nathaniel Livesey

comparing the ECMWF operational relative humidity analyses with the Measurements of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) data, Dethof et al. (1999) showed that the ECMWF operational analyses can be used to investigate the transport of moisture from the troposphere into the stratosphere. Dunkerton (1995) concluded from rawinsonde data and ECMWF analyses that the Asian and North American monsoons can transport significant mass into the lower stratosphere. Ovarlez and van

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Ya-Chien Feng and Frédéric Fabry

1. Introduction Convection initiation and short-term quantitative precipitation forecasting are sensitive to the moisture variability at the surface (e.g., Zawadzki et al. 1981 ; Crook 1996 ; Weckwerth et al. 1999 ). High-spatial- and high-temporal-resolution near-surface moisture measurements are thus needed for improving the initial conditions in storm-scale numerical weather prediction (NWP) models ( Emanuel et al. 1995 ; Dabberdt and Schlatter 1996 ; Fabry and Sun 2010 ; Hanley et al

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Malgorzata Szczodrak, Peter J. Minnett, Nicholas R. Nalli, and Wayne F. Feltz

moisture is intimately linked with the dynamics and thermodynamics of the atmosphere, as well as the vertical and horizontal distribution of clouds. Knowledge of the state of the atmosphere in terms of the vertical and horizontal distribution of the temperature and water vapor is therefore necessary for the prediction of clouds and precipitation as well as in many branches of atmospheric research, such as boundary layer processes, atmospheric chemistry, hydrology, polar meteorology, climate studies

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Adam L. Houston, Roger J. Laurence III, Tevis W. Nichols, Sean Waugh, Brian Argrow, and Conrad L. Ziegler

. 2012 ). Fig . 1. (a) Tempest unmanned aircraft as configured for AVIATE. The placement of the temperature/moisture sensor (Vaisala RS92) and the wind velocity sensor (Aeroprobe five-port probe) is annotated. (b) Rocket nose and wing sleeve for the RS92 temperature/humidity sensor (the RS92 is visible at the rear of the rocket nose through one of three vents). (c) Aeroprobe five-port probe. Fig . 2. NSSL-MM. The present study discusses observations from the R. M. Young “wind monitor,” the R. M

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Armin Raabe, Klaus Arnold, and Astrid Ziemann

-surface vertical turbulent fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum. However, these quantities are necessary boundary conditions in meteorological prediction models that calculate the field of air temperature, wind, and moisture. Such a physical boundary condition is the energy balance equation for a surface: R n − H − LE − G = 0, (1) which means that the sum of the net radiation flux ( R n ), the vertical turbulent fluxes of sensible ( H ) and latent (LE) heat, and as the

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Richard J. Lind and William J. Shaw

. REFERENCESBuck, A., 1985: The Lyman-alpha absorption hygrometer. Moisture and Humidity.' Measurement and Control in Science and In dustry, Proc. Symposium on Moisture and Humidity, Washing ton, D.C., Instr, Soc. Amer., 411-436.Eloranta, E. W., R. B. Stull and E. E. Ebert, 1989: Test of a calibration device for airborne Lyman-a hygrometers. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 6, 129-139.Friehe, C. A., R. L. Grossman and Y. Pann, 1986: Calibration of an airborne Lyman-alpha hygrometer and measurement of

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Nicholas J. Elmer, Emily Berndt, Gary Jedlovec, and Kevin Fuell

temperature difference, qualitatively estimates tropopause height based on total ozone, where a large green contribution indicates ozone-poor, tropical air masses with a high tropopause height and a low green contribution indicates ozone-rich, polar air masses with low tropopause height. The blue component, which is simply the inverted 6.2- µ m brightness temperature, indicates upper-level moisture, where a large blue component indicates moist upper levels or high clouds ( EUMETSAT 2015a ; Zavodsky et al

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