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J. R. Riley and A. S. Edwards

( Campistron 1975 ; Schaefer 1976 ; Riley and Reynolds 1979 ; Drake 1984 ), and that spectacular concentration also occurs in zones of atmospheric convergence associated with storm front outflows ( Schaefer 1976 ; Riley and Reynolds 1990 ), with sea breezes ( Greenbank et al. 1980 ; Drake 1984 ), and sometimes with solitary waves in the nocturnal boundary layer ( Drake 1985 ). Linear concentrations of airborne insects have also been observed in the daytime, apparently associated with the cellular

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Thomas F. Gross

uniform layers of sand grains of diameter k d , that z 0 = k d /30 applies over a range of Reynolds number, as long as z / z 0 ≫ 1 ( Nikuradse 1932 ). Because the coefficient relating z 0 to geometrical length scales is so large, it might be better to think of z 0 as an integration constant and not as a physical length scale. Bradshaw and Huang (1995) state “ C is related to the increase in U across the viscous wall region.” The Grant and Madsen (1982) wave–current model produces

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D. Cruette, A. Marillier, J. L. Dufresne, J. Y. Grandpeix, P. Nacass, and H. Bellec

–receiver paths, air temperature is intrinsically measured since the velocity of the sound depends only upon this state parameter (first-order accuracy), the very short transit time of the sonic wave (less than 0.7 ms) allows a measurement rate up to 10 3 Hz and therefore a large bandwidth, and the absence of psychrometric effect due to evaporation of droplets trapped by the sensing element as it occurs for impact thermometers. 2. Description of the sensor A sonic sensor mounted on an aircraft cannot

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P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, and O. B. Brown

detectors is used, indium antimonide (InSb) in front of mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe). The InSb detector is for the so-called short-wave part of the spectrum from about 1800 to 3000 cm −1 (3.3–5.5 μ m) and the HgCdTe detector for the long-wave part from about 550 to 1800 cm −1 (5.5–18 μ m). The detectors are continuously cooled to the operating temperature of ∼78 K by a mechanical Stirling cycle cooler, manufactured by Litton Life Support Systems Inc., which uses helium as the working fluid. No

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Nathan A. Dahl, Alan Shapiro, Corey K. Potvin, Adam Theisen, Joshua G. Gebauer, Alexander D. Schenkman, and Ming Xue

et al. 2004 ), tropical cyclones ( Kosiba and Wurman 2014 ; Wingo and Knupp 2016 ), supercells ( Brandes 1977 ; Ray et al. 1975 ; Frame et al. 2009 ; Markowski et al. 2012 ; Calhoun et al. 2013 ; Atkins et al. 2014 ), and tornadoes ( Marquis et al. 2008 , 2012 ; Brandes 1984a , b ; Dowell and Bluestein 1997 , 2002a , b ; Beck et al. 2006 ; Wurman et al. 2007 ; Kosiba et al. 2013 ; Wienhoff et al. 2018 ; Markowski et al. 2018 ). It can also be used to study the planetary boundary

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Albert J. Koscielny, Richard J. Doviak, and Dusan S. Zrnic

. Berger, 1980: Turbulence and waves in the optically clear planetary boundary layer resolved by dual Doppler radars. Radio $ci., 15, 297-317. , and D. S. Zrnic', 1984: Doppler Radar and Weather Obser vations. Academic Press, 458 pp.Draper, N. R., and H. Smith, 1981: Applied Regression Analysis.Wiley, 709 pp.Koscielny, A. J., R. J. Doviak and R. Rabin, 1982: Statistical considerations in the estimation of divergence from single Doppler radar and application to prestorm boundary layer

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Harvey E. Seim, Michael C. Gregg, and R. T. Miyamoto

wave breaking and microstructure. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 4, 37-4'45.Neff, W. D., 1975: Quantitative evaluation of acoustic.echoes from the planetary boundary layer. NOAA Tech. Rep. ERL 322-WPL 38, 54 pp.Oakey, N. S., 1982: Determination of the rate of dissipation of turbulent energy from simultaneous temperature and velocity .';hearmicrostructure measurements. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 12, 256-.271.Pence, E. A., 1958: Reciprocity and other relationships of use in transducer computations

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M. F. Larsen and J. Röttger

.0 ~,.I~ lO.O"' 3OCT 979 ']~ .i . .. ~ i i I i I I I ~'~ ~ ~ ~ ZT~ 3~~ ~ / m~ ~ ~l~. ~. ~t p~o~le~ o~p~ce~ ~te~ ra~ win~ (th~k I~~ith ~b~l~ty b~) com~r~ wit~ t~e ~o~o~e me~r~mem~at ~ov~r (~) a~ 8tmt~ (8). (~mm ~tt~er 19~I ).caused by planetary waves (synoptic-scale disturbances) with periods of 3-4 days, propagating fromwest to east. The radar time series can be seen to beT

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G. D. Quartly, M. A. Srokosz, and A. C. McMillan

standard “tool” for measuring certain geophysical parameters of the ocean surface: in particular, the sea surface height h, the significant wave height H s , and the roughness of the sea surface σ 0 , from which wind speed is inferred ( Brown 1977 ; Chelton et al. 1989 ). The Brown model has been the basis of all altimeter algorithms to date. It has been modified to allow for nonlinear waves (and therefore non-Gaussian statistics) by Lipa and Barrick (1981) and Srokosz (1986) , which allows

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Changsheng Chen, Hedong Liu, and Robert C. Beardsley

system. The detailed description was given in Mellor and Blumberg (1985). The boundary conditions are given as follows. At the surface where σ = 0, and at the bottom where σ = −1 c. The 2D (vertically integrated) equations The sea surface elevation included in the equations describes the fast-moving surface gravity waves. In the explicit numerical approach, the criterion for the time step is inversely proportional to the phase speed of these waves. Since the sea surface

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