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Igor Shulman, James K. Lewis, Alan F. Blumberg, and B. Nicholas Kim

curvilinear, orthogonal grid in the horizontal and a bottom-following sigma-coordinate grid in the vertical. A mode-splitting technique is used in the model to separate fast-moving external gravity waves and slow-moving internal gravity waves. In this case, the separation of the vertically integrated governing equations (barotropic, external mode) and the equations governing vertical structure (baroclinic, internal mode) is introduced. Boundary conditions are formulated for the barotropic and baroclinic

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J. R. Riley and A. S. Edwards

( Campistron 1975 ; Schaefer 1976 ; Riley and Reynolds 1979 ; Drake 1984 ), and that spectacular concentration also occurs in zones of atmospheric convergence associated with storm front outflows ( Schaefer 1976 ; Riley and Reynolds 1990 ), with sea breezes ( Greenbank et al. 1980 ; Drake 1984 ), and sometimes with solitary waves in the nocturnal boundary layer ( Drake 1985 ). Linear concentrations of airborne insects have also been observed in the daytime, apparently associated with the cellular

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D. Cruette, A. Marillier, J. L. Dufresne, J. Y. Grandpeix, P. Nacass, and H. Bellec

–receiver paths, air temperature is intrinsically measured since the velocity of the sound depends only upon this state parameter (first-order accuracy), the very short transit time of the sonic wave (less than 0.7 ms) allows a measurement rate up to 10 3 Hz and therefore a large bandwidth, and the absence of psychrometric effect due to evaporation of droplets trapped by the sensing element as it occurs for impact thermometers. 2. Description of the sensor A sonic sensor mounted on an aircraft cannot

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P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, and O. B. Brown

detectors is used, indium antimonide (InSb) in front of mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe). The InSb detector is for the so-called short-wave part of the spectrum from about 1800 to 3000 cm −1 (3.3–5.5 μ m) and the HgCdTe detector for the long-wave part from about 550 to 1800 cm −1 (5.5–18 μ m). The detectors are continuously cooled to the operating temperature of ∼78 K by a mechanical Stirling cycle cooler, manufactured by Litton Life Support Systems Inc., which uses helium as the working fluid. No

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Albert J. Koscielny, Richard J. Doviak, and Dusan S. Zrnic

. Berger, 1980: Turbulence and waves in the optically clear planetary boundary layer resolved by dual Doppler radars. Radio $ci., 15, 297-317. , and D. S. Zrnic', 1984: Doppler Radar and Weather Obser vations. Academic Press, 458 pp.Draper, N. R., and H. Smith, 1981: Applied Regression Analysis.Wiley, 709 pp.Koscielny, A. J., R. J. Doviak and R. Rabin, 1982: Statistical considerations in the estimation of divergence from single Doppler radar and application to prestorm boundary layer

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Nathan A. Dahl, Alan Shapiro, Corey K. Potvin, Adam Theisen, Joshua G. Gebauer, Alexander D. Schenkman, and Ming Xue

et al. 2004 ), tropical cyclones ( Kosiba and Wurman 2014 ; Wingo and Knupp 2016 ), supercells ( Brandes 1977 ; Ray et al. 1975 ; Frame et al. 2009 ; Markowski et al. 2012 ; Calhoun et al. 2013 ; Atkins et al. 2014 ), and tornadoes ( Marquis et al. 2008 , 2012 ; Brandes 1984a , b ; Dowell and Bluestein 1997 , 2002a , b ; Beck et al. 2006 ; Wurman et al. 2007 ; Kosiba et al. 2013 ; Wienhoff et al. 2018 ; Markowski et al. 2018 ). It can also be used to study the planetary boundary

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Harvey E. Seim, Michael C. Gregg, and R. T. Miyamoto

wave breaking and microstructure. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 4, 37-4'45.Neff, W. D., 1975: Quantitative evaluation of acoustic.echoes from the planetary boundary layer. NOAA Tech. Rep. ERL 322-WPL 38, 54 pp.Oakey, N. S., 1982: Determination of the rate of dissipation of turbulent energy from simultaneous temperature and velocity .';hearmicrostructure measurements. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 12, 256-.271.Pence, E. A., 1958: Reciprocity and other relationships of use in transducer computations

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G. D. Quartly, M. A. Srokosz, and A. C. McMillan

standard “tool” for measuring certain geophysical parameters of the ocean surface: in particular, the sea surface height h, the significant wave height H s , and the roughness of the sea surface σ 0 , from which wind speed is inferred ( Brown 1977 ; Chelton et al. 1989 ). The Brown model has been the basis of all altimeter algorithms to date. It has been modified to allow for nonlinear waves (and therefore non-Gaussian statistics) by Lipa and Barrick (1981) and Srokosz (1986) , which allows

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M. F. Larsen and J. Röttger

.0 ~,.I~ lO.O"' 3OCT 979 ']~ .i . .. ~ i i I i I I I ~'~ ~ ~ ~ ZT~ 3~~ ~ / m~ ~ ~l~. ~. ~t p~o~le~ o~p~ce~ ~te~ ra~ win~ (th~k I~~ith ~b~l~ty b~) com~r~ wit~ t~e ~o~o~e me~r~mem~at ~ov~r (~) a~ 8tmt~ (8). (~mm ~tt~er 19~I ).caused by planetary waves (synoptic-scale disturbances) with periods of 3-4 days, propagating fromwest to east. The radar time series can be seen to beT

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Changsheng Chen, Hedong Liu, and Robert C. Beardsley

system. The detailed description was given in Mellor and Blumberg (1985). The boundary conditions are given as follows. At the surface where σ = 0, and at the bottom where σ = −1 c. The 2D (vertically integrated) equations The sea surface elevation included in the equations describes the fast-moving surface gravity waves. In the explicit numerical approach, the criterion for the time step is inversely proportional to the phase speed of these waves. Since the sea surface

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