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S. T. Martin, P. Artaxo, L. Machado, A. O. Manzi, R. A. F. Souza, C. Schumacher, J. Wang, T. Biscaro, J. Brito, A. Calheiros, K. Jardine, A. Medeiros, B. Portela, S. S. de Sá, K. Adachi, A. C. Aiken, R. Albrecht, L. Alexander, M. O. Andreae, H. M. J. Barbosa, P. Buseck, D. Chand, J. M. Comstock, D. A. Day, M. Dubey, J. Fan, J. Fast, G. Fisch, E. Fortner, S. Giangrande, M. Gilles, A. H. Goldstein, A. Guenther, J. Hubbe, M. Jensen, J. L. Jimenez, F. N. Keutsch, S. Kim, C. Kuang, A. Laskin, K. McKinney, F. Mei, M. Miller, R. Nascimento, T. Pauliquevis, M. Pekour, J. Peres, T. Petäjä, C. Pöhlker, U. Pöschl, L. Rizzo, B. Schmid, J. E. Shilling, M. A. Silva Dias, J. N. Smith, J. M. Tomlinson, J. Tóta, and M. Wendisch

only by boat or plane. The central Amazon in the wet season, absent Manaus, serves as a continental reference of atmospheric properties under background conditions ( Andreae 2007 ), and the opportunity to study the effects of the Manaus plume in this environment represents a unique worldwide reference. At times, there are also episodic intrusions of background and polluted Atlantic and African air masses deep into the Amazon ( Martin et al. 2010a ). In the dry season regional- and continental

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Cenlin He, Olivia Clifton, Emmi Felker-Quinn, S. Ryan Fulgham, Julieta F. Juncosa Calahorrano, Danica Lombardozzi, Gemma Purser, Mj Riches, Rebecca Schwantes, Wenfu Tang, Benjamin Poulter, and Allison L. Steiner

limited process understanding and hence predictive ability. Vegetation and soil are the interface between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems through emissions and wet and dry deposition of air pollutants and related compounds. F ig . 1. Demonstration of key elements and processes in air pollution–terrestrial ecosystem interactions, including vegetation and soil uptake and emissions of air pollutants and precursors, in-canopy turbulence, and effects of human activities, fires, and meteorology

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Nathan B. Magee, Eli Melaas, Peter M. Finocchio, Melissa Jardel, Anthony Noonan, and Michael J. Iacono

of the natural and anthropogenic factors that are closely associated with regional and global climate change and variability. Fig. 4. Long-term measurements and trends in sun fraction and clear days (>92% sunny): 1-yr (red) and 10-yr (black) moving averages of moving weekly sun fraction measurements, overlaid on raw daily sun fraction observations (blue points). Right axis displays the number of clear days (purple) in a moving 365-day interval. Modeled estimates of volcanic aerosol effects on

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Xubin Zeng, Robert Atlas, Ronald J. Birk, Frederick H. Carr, Matthew J. Carrier, Lidia Cucurull, William H. Hooke, Eugenia Kalnay, Raghu Murtugudde, Derek J. Posselt, Joellen L. Russell, Daniel P. Tyndall, Robert A. Weller, and Fuqing Zhang

using a new 9-km global nature run based on the Integrated Forecasting System at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Development of regional OSSE systems for high impact weather and air quality have been initiated, and a 2-km basin-scale ocean nature run has been developed. Using these systems, a significant number of OSEs and OSSEs in both global and regional (i.e., tropical cyclone) analysis and forecast systems were performed for multiple existing and proposed observing

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Zachary A. Holden, W. Matt Jolly, Alan Swanson, Dyer A. Warren, Kelsey Jencso, Marco Maneta, Mitchell Burgard, Chris Gibson, Zachary Hoylman, and Erin L. Landguth

. 1995 ; Whiteman, 2000 ). Furthermore, surface temperatures vary dynamically in time and space; the magnitude of cold air drainage depends on both landscape position and regional atmospheric patterns, and variations in daytime temperature vary as a function of the interaction between surface moisture and incident radiation ( Holden et al. 2016 ). In very rugged terrain, these topographic effects are fine-grained and are not fully resolved by the gridded datasets that are widely used for assessing

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Thomas W. Giambelluca, Qi Chen, Abby G. Frazier, Jonathan P. Price, Yi-Leng Chen, Pao-Shin Chu, Jon K. Eischeid, and Donna M. Delparte

Interaction among trade winds, terrain, land thermal effects, and the trade-wind inversion give the Hawaiian Islands one of the most varied rainfall patterns on Earth. Distinct, persistent patterns of uplift lead to dramatic rainfall gradients and, together with elevation-related temperature differences, produce nearly the full range of climate types. This microcosm of global environmental diversity provides a unique natural laboratory for world-class research on topics such as terrestrial

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Janet Barlow, Martin Best, Sylvia I. Bohnenstengel, Peter Clark, Sue Grimmond, Humphrey Lean, Andreas Christen, Stefan Emeis, Martial Haeffelin, Ian N. Harman, Aude Lemonsu, Alberto Martilli, Eric Pardyjak, Mathias W Rotach, Susan Ballard, Ian Boutle, Andy Brown, Xiaoming Cai, Matteo Carpentieri, Omduth Coceal, Ben Crawford, Silvana Di Sabatino, Junxia Dou, Daniel R. Drew, John M. Edwards, Joachim Fallmann, Krzysztof Fortuniak, Jemma Gornall, Tobias Gronemeier, Christos H. Halios, Denise Hertwig, Kohin Hirano, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Zhiwen Luo, Gerald Mills, Makoto Nakayoshi, Kathy Pain, K. Heinke Schlünzen, Stefan Smith, Lionel Soulhac, Gert-Jan Steeneveld, Ting Sun, Natalie E Theeuwes, David Thomson, James A. Voogt, Helen C. Ward, Zheng-Tong Xie, and Jian Zhong

Reading, Reading, United Kingdom With the majority of people experiencing weather in urban areas, it is critical to understand cities, weather, and climate impacts. Increasing climate extremes (e.g., heat stress, air pollution, flash flooding) combined with the density of people means it is essential that city infrastructure and operations can withstand high-impact weather. Thus, there is a huge opportunity to mitigate climate change effects and provide healthier environments through design and

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Jun Qin, Ailin Shi, Guoyu Ren, Zhenghong Chen, Yuda Yang, Xukai Zou, and Panfeng Zhang

. Ghan , and F. Giorgi , 2003 : Regional climate effects of aerosols over China: Modeling and observation . Tellus , 55B , 914 – 934 , . 10.1046/j.1435-6935.2003.00070.x Qiao , S. X. , and Z. H. Chen , 1999 : The building of chronological tables of carved stone records for low water and flood within upper reaches of the Changjiang River through the age . Meteor. J. Hubei , 1999 , 63 – 71 . Ren , G. , 1998 : Pollen evidence for

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E. P. Maurer, L. Brekke, T. Pruitt, B. Thrasher, J. Long, P. Duffy, M. Dettinger, D. Cayan, and J. Arnold

An expanded archive of downscaled model-based projections of future changes in regional climate is described, with a user-friendly web interface, to facilitate analysis of climate change impacts and adaptation. As humanity and our environment experience increasing impacts of a disrupted climate, exploration of the range of possible future impacts becomes more urgent. While substantial advances have been made through the standardization of simulations for projecting future climate, there

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Paola Formenti, Barbara D’Anna, Cyrille Flamant, Marc Mallet, Stuart John Piketh, Kerstin Schepanski, Fabien Waquet, Frédérique Auriol, Gerard Brogniez, Frédéric Burnet, Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Aurélien Chauvigné, Patrick Chazette, Cyrielle Denjean, Karine Desboeufs, Jean-François Doussin, Nellie Elguindi, Stefanie Feuerstein, Marco Gaetani, Chiara Giorio, Danitza Klopper, Marc Daniel Mallet, Pierre Nabat, Anne Monod, Fabien Solmon, Andreas Namwoonde, Chibo Chikwililwa, Roland Mushi, Ellsworth Judd Welton, and Brent Holben

.1175/BAMS-D-BAMS-D-17-0278.2 ) aiming to characterize the regional aerosols for an observational-validated evaluation of their radiative effects over the WCSA. Table 1. List of previous major field campaigns addressing aerosols in southern Africa. AEROCLO-sA addresses the following questions: What is the chemical composition of mineral dust, biomass-burning, and marine aerosols emitted or transported in the WCSA? What is their state of mixing? What are their spectral absorption properties? What is

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