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H. K. Cigizoglu, M. Bayazit, and B. Önöz

region. Streamflow is sensitive to changes in precipitation and other climate parameters. Hence it is informative to investigate whether streamflow records exhibit evidence of trends that may be linked to climate change. Trend existence in the annual maximum (flood), mean, and low flows in rivers carries significance for different types of water resources problems. Floods and mean flows are considered in the design of flood mitigation structures and water storage reservoirs. Low flows are especially

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Nicholas E. Wayand, Alan F. Hamlet, Mimi Hughes, Shara I. Feld, and Jessica D. Lundquist

-instrumented maritime mountain basin, the North Fork of the American River basin (hereafter NF American basin; Fig. 1 ) in the northern Sierra Nevada, California. Because of the previously referenced dominance of the irradiance terms in the surface energy balance in this river basin ( Marks and Dozier 1992 ), we do not examine turbulent fluxes and wind speed sources (W), but instead focus on the sources of precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and downward SW and LW irradiance data. Common empirical

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Siraj ul Islam, Stephen J. Déry, and Arelia T. Werner

susceptible to these climate change–driven modifications ( Morrison et al. 2002 ; Ferrari et al. 2007 ). The Fraser River basin (FRB) of British Columbia (BC), where complex topography dominates the landscape, is a prime example of a susceptible basin. It spans one-fourth of BC, covering roughly 230 000 km 2 , and thus forms a large basin with significant environmental, economic, and cultural importance. The presence of a seasonal snowpack in the FRB is an essential component of its water resources and

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Aijing Zhang, Wenbin Liu, Zhenliang Yin, Guobin Fu, and Chunmiao Zheng

, developing adaptive management schemes requires local-scale studies. In arid endorheic river basins, the water resource of the entire basin primarily originates in the headwater mountainous regions, which comprise only a small portion of the entire basin. As a result, focused studies of changing hydrologic conditions in these headwater regions, as the result of climate change, are needed to understand future changes in water resource availability within the entire basin. Moreover, the hydrologic regime

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Janice L. Bytheway, Mimi Hughes, Kelly Mahoney, and Robert Cifelli

1. Introduction The Russian River carves a 177-km path through Mendocino and Sonoma Counties in Northern California, providing water for hundreds of thousands of residents and acres of agriculture, and a home for several endangered or threatened species of salmon and trout. Therefore, water managers in the basin must strike a balance between flood mitigation, storage for residential and irrigation needs, and maintaining sufficient flows to sustain the river’s ecosystem ( Dettinger et al. 2011

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Erin Dougherty and Kristen L. Rasmussen

1. Introduction In the continental United States (CONUS), floods are the second deadliest weather-related natural disaster ( Ashley and Ashley 2008 ) and accounted for over $123.5 billion in adjusted losses between 1980 and 2018 ( Smith 2019 ). Deadly flash flooding in Texas and Arkansas from 9 to 11 June 2010 resulted in over $10 million in damage along the Guadalupe River in Texas and 20 fatalities at the Albert Pike Recreational Area in western Arkansas ( Schumacher et al. 2013 ). This

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Martin Hirschi, Sonia I. Seneviratne, and Christoph Schär

measurements and reanalysis data. Their study focused on the Mississippi River basin for the time period 1987–96 and used European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 40-yr Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data in combination with U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow measurements. In particular, estimates derived with this approach for Illinois (∼2 × 10 5 km 2 ) were found to agree very well with in situ observations of soil moisture, groundwater, and snow. The present study extends this previous

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Guillermo J. Berri, Marcela A. Ghietto, and Norberto O. García

the year when the event begins until February of the following year. They also find that during the period of June–December of the year when La Niña events begin, the region experiences negative precipitation anomalies. More recently Diaz et al. (1998) analyze precipitation data of Uruguay and southern Brazil and confirm the previous results in relation to ENSO events. Genta et al. (1998) study the variability of riverflows of the three more important tributaries of the La Plata River basin

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Dan Zhang, Qi Zhang, Adrian D. Werner, and Xiaomang Liu

many parts of the world (e.g., Heim 2002 ; Meehl et al. 2007 ; Taylor et al. 2012 ), such as the 2011 drought in Texas (United States; Nielsen-Gammon 2012 ), the 2006 drought in the Yangtze River basin (China; Dai et al. 2008 ), and the 1997–2009 millennium drought in Australia ( Leblanc et al. 2012 ). Hydrological drought is traditionally assessed using field observations of streamflow, surface water and groundwater levels, and soil moisture content, thereby providing direct evidence of any

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Mimi Hughes, Kelly M. Mahoney, Paul J. Neiman, Benjamin J. Moore, Michael Alexander, and F. Martin Ralph

1. Introduction Wintertime precipitation along the west coast of the United States often occurs as the result of large water vapor fluxes from atmospheric rivers (ARs)—long, narrow, low-level plumes of enhanced water vapor transport ( Zhu and Newell 1998 )—impinging on local topography. When AR-containing cyclones make landfall on the western U.S. coast, their enhanced vertically integrated water vapor transport (IVT) [see Eq. (1) in section 2c ] combines with near-neutral moist static

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