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Aijing Zhang, Wenbin Liu, Zhenliang Yin, Guobin Fu, and Chunmiao Zheng

, developing adaptive management schemes requires local-scale studies. In arid endorheic river basins, the water resource of the entire basin primarily originates in the headwater mountainous regions, which comprise only a small portion of the entire basin. As a result, focused studies of changing hydrologic conditions in these headwater regions, as the result of climate change, are needed to understand future changes in water resource availability within the entire basin. Moreover, the hydrologic regime

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Janice L. Bytheway, Mimi Hughes, Kelly Mahoney, and Robert Cifelli

1. Introduction The Russian River carves a 177-km path through Mendocino and Sonoma Counties in Northern California, providing water for hundreds of thousands of residents and acres of agriculture, and a home for several endangered or threatened species of salmon and trout. Therefore, water managers in the basin must strike a balance between flood mitigation, storage for residential and irrigation needs, and maintaining sufficient flows to sustain the river’s ecosystem ( Dettinger et al. 2011

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Guillermo J. Berri, Marcela A. Ghietto, and Norberto O. García

the year when the event begins until February of the following year. They also find that during the period of June–December of the year when La Niña events begin, the region experiences negative precipitation anomalies. More recently Diaz et al. (1998) analyze precipitation data of Uruguay and southern Brazil and confirm the previous results in relation to ENSO events. Genta et al. (1998) study the variability of riverflows of the three more important tributaries of the La Plata River basin

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Martin Hirschi, Sonia I. Seneviratne, and Christoph Schär

measurements and reanalysis data. Their study focused on the Mississippi River basin for the time period 1987–96 and used European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 40-yr Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data in combination with U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow measurements. In particular, estimates derived with this approach for Illinois (∼2 × 10 5 km 2 ) were found to agree very well with in situ observations of soil moisture, groundwater, and snow. The present study extends this previous

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Philippe Lucas-Picher, Philippe Riboust, Samuel Somot, and René Laprise

1. Introduction The Richelieu River basin originates in small streams of the Appalachian Mountains, more precisely, on the western slopes of the Green Mountains and the eastern slopes of the Adirondack Mountains in the northeastern United States ( Fig. 1 ). The water from these streams flows to Lake Champlain, which acts as a large reservoir. The water then leaves the lake toward the north in the Richelieu River, which in turn flows to the St. Lawrence River in the southern region of the

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Dan Zhang, Qi Zhang, Adrian D. Werner, and Xiaomang Liu

many parts of the world (e.g., Heim 2002 ; Meehl et al. 2007 ; Taylor et al. 2012 ), such as the 2011 drought in Texas (United States; Nielsen-Gammon 2012 ), the 2006 drought in the Yangtze River basin (China; Dai et al. 2008 ), and the 1997–2009 millennium drought in Australia ( Leblanc et al. 2012 ). Hydrological drought is traditionally assessed using field observations of streamflow, surface water and groundwater levels, and soil moisture content, thereby providing direct evidence of any

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Vera Thiemig, Rodrigo Rojas, Mauricio Zambrano-Bigiarini, Vincenzo Levizzani, and Ad De Roo

and one reanalysis product—namely, CMORPH, RFE 2.0, TRMM 3B42 v6, GPROF 6.0, PERSIANN, GSMaP-MVK, and ERA-Interim (see Table 2 for details). These products were selected because of their spatial and temporal resolution, which makes them particularly suitable for hydrological applications. The performance of the SRFEs was assessed over four African river basins—namely, the Zambezi, Volta, Juba–Shabelle, and Baro–Akobo. Considering the temporal and spatial variability of rainfall characteristics

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Mimi Hughes, Kelly M. Mahoney, Paul J. Neiman, Benjamin J. Moore, Michael Alexander, and F. Martin Ralph

1. Introduction Wintertime precipitation along the west coast of the United States often occurs as the result of large water vapor fluxes from atmospheric rivers (ARs)—long, narrow, low-level plumes of enhanced water vapor transport ( Zhu and Newell 1998 )—impinging on local topography. When AR-containing cyclones make landfall on the western U.S. coast, their enhanced vertically integrated water vapor transport (IVT) [see Eq. (1) in section 2c ] combines with near-neutral moist static

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E. Kerkhoven and T. Y. Gan

results with TAR scenarios produce vegetation shifts similar to those of the FAR and SAR scenarios in Canada (R. P. Neilson 2007, personal communication). So far, most climate change studies conducted on river basins have not considered the possible effects of vegetation migration on future hydrologic impacts. For example, Kerkhoven and Gan (2011) modeled the effects of climatic change on stream flows in the Athabasca River basin (ARB) and Fraser River basin (FRB) under a variety of SRES climate

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Xiaolei Wang, Yi Luo, Lin Sun, Chansheng He, Yiqing Zhang, and Shiyin Liu

1. Introduction The Amu Darya River (ADR) is the largest river in the Aral Sea basin, with a share of mountain discharge greater than 90%. The ADR supplies water to a large population and to the Aral Sea in the downstream region, accounting for two-thirds of total runoff in the Aral Sea basin ( Agal’tseva et al. 2011 ). Water availability in the ADR is of international importance because of water conflicts among countries in this region and the deteriorating Aral Sea environment. Streamflow in

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