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Satoshi Kimura, William Smyth, and Eric Kunze

1. Introduction Salt-fingering-favorable stratification occurs when a gravitationally unstable vertical gradient of salinity is stabilized by that of temperature. In such conditions, the faster diffusion of heat relative to salt can generate cells of rising and sinking fluid known as salt fingers. Salt-fingering-favorable stratification is found in much of the tropical and subtropical pycnocline ( You 2002 ). The most striking signatures are in thermohaline staircases, stacked layers of

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Juan Ezequiel Martin and Chris R. Rehmann

1. Introduction A series of layers and interfaces can develop from initially linear density profiles in strongly stratified flows subjected to weak mixing. Understanding and characterizing layering effects on the transport of scalars and momentum can be important in ocean modeling, in which a detailed description of the small scales is impractical. Double diffusion, in which either temperature or salinity is unstably stratified, can produce a stepped density profile, but layers can also occur

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Li-Yauw Oey

MARCH 1984 LI ~ Y A U W O E Y 629On Steady Salinity Distribution and Circulation in Partially Mixed and Well Mixed Estuaries LI-YAuW OEYGeophysical Fluid Dynamics Program, James Forrestal Campus, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540(Manuscript received 16 June 1983, in final form 16 October 1983) - ABSTRACT Perturbation

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Gunnar I. Roden

VOL. 5, NO. 4JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHYOCTOBER 1975On North Pacific Temperature, Salinity, Sound Velocity and Density Frontsand their Relation to the Wind and Energy Flux Fields1GUNNAR I. RODEXDepartment of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle 98195(Manuscript received 16 December 1974, in revised form 30 April 1975)ABSTRACTThe main oceanic fronts of the North Pacific are investigated and the principal frontogenetic processesdescribed. Fronts are features of the upper

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P. M. Saunders

J^NUARY1986 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 189The Accuracy of Measurement of Salinity, Oxygen and Temperature in the Deep Ocean P. M. SAUNDERSInstitute of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley, Godalming, Surrey GU8 5 UB10 September 1984 and 22 July 1985 ABSTRACT At depths greater than about 3000 db and between latitudes 20- and 50- the northeast Atlantic has a

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Sanjiv Ramachandran, Amit Tandon, Jennifer Mackinnon, Andrew J. Lucas, Robert Pinkel, Amy F. Waterhouse, Jonathan Nash, Emily Shroyer, Amala Mahadevan, Robert A. Weller, and J. Thomas Farrar

, swollen from the monsoon rains, feed the Bay. This influx of freshwater often creates thin, salinity-stratified layers confined to the upper 20–30 m of the Bay. The consequences of this stratification for vertical exchange have been the focus of much research ( Sengupta and Ravichandran 2001 ; Vinaychandran et al. 2002 ; Thadathil et al. 2007 ; Sengupta et al. 2008 ). Strong stratification near the surface inhibits vertical turbulent transport, thereby limiting the subsurface fluxes of momentum

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Johannes Karstensen

suggest that equatorial Pacific isothermal depth variability may be generated by the local wind stress (and Ekman pumping) variability at the equator rather than from anomalies of extratropical origin ( Schneider et al. 1999 ). In particular for the North Pacific little coupling between Tropics and extratropics was found. However, Yeager and Large (2004) identified sea-surface temperature variability along the equator generated through isopycnal advection of not only temperature but temperature/salinity

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Eli Tziperman, Laure Zanna, and Cecile Penland

amplification in a coupled GCM introduces nontrivial difficulties. As a first approximation, we construct an EOF-based reduced space based on temperature and salinity fields from a 2000-yr control model run. We then fit a linear model to the reduced space dynamics following the “linear inverse modeling” approach used in the context of ENSO (e.g., Penland and Sardeshmukh 1995 ; Penland 1996 ; Penland et al. 2000 ; Penland and Matrosova 1998 , 2001 ; Blumenthal 1991 ; Moore and Kleeman 2001 ). In

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Andrey Y. Shcherbina, Michael C. Gregg, Matthew H. Alford, and Ramsey R. Harcourt

1. Introduction Definitions of thermohaline intrusions vary among researchers and are often related to temperature or salinity inversions (e.g., Ruddick et al. 1999 ; Ruddick and Kerr 2003 ). The variety of definitions arises from the need to accommodate two loosely related properties of these features: They are formed by local lateral intrusion of one water mass into another at a particular depth. They tend to produce inversions—that is, changes of sign of vertical temperature or salinity

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Suneil Iyer and Kyla Drushka

1. Introduction Small-scale turbulent processes are a crucial part of the pathway by which freshwater from rainfall is incorporated into the salinity structure of the ocean. A primary goal of the second Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS-2) is to understand the processes that influence upper-ocean salinity at a variety of spatial and temporal scales ( Lindstrom et al. 2019 ). The present work contributes to this objective as an analysis of the relationships between rain

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