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Paul A. Dirmeyer and Subhadeep Halder

surface model, version 2.7.1 ( Ek et al. 2003 ), and to the Modular Ocean Model, version 4 (MOM4; Griffies et al. 2004 ). The atmospheric horizontal resolution for hindcast experiments is approximately 0.9° (T126 spectral resolution) and the ocean has a horizontal resolution of ½°, increasing to ¼° in the meridional dimension near the equator. GFSv2 has 64 sigma–pressure hybrid levels extending up to 0.26 hPa and MOM4 has 40 levels down to 4740 m. Sea ice is predicted using a modified version of the

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Sergey Y. Matrosov

and water substance partitioning in stratiform rainfall. 2. CloudSat -based approaches The CPR approaches used in this study for retrievals of parameters of precipitating cloud systems are described in detail by Matrosov et al. (2008) . These retrievals are performed simultaneously and independently for the liquid hydrometeor layer, where estimates of layer mean rainfall are obtained, and the layer containing predominantly ice phase hydrometeors, where ice water content (IWC) and its vertical

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Abishek Adhikari, Chuntao Liu, and Lindsey Hayden

(~280 K) and difficulty in observing the emission signal from the precipitation particles ( Carr et al. 2015 ). Therefore, over land, the depression in the brightness temperatures at higher-frequency microwave channels caused by ice scattering is used instead to retrieve precipitation ( Wang et al. 2009 ; Ferraro et al. 1998 , 2013 ). Although the scattering-based technique is more indirect, it is a useful technique for understanding the amount of precipitation suspended in the atmosphere. The

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Yoshiki Fukutomi, Hiromichi Igarashi, Kooiti Masuda, and Tetsuzo Yasunari

, outputs reproduced by AMIP-II models can be useful to diagnose these factors. Now, another possibility may be a close association with the subdecadal atmospheric mode on a 6–7-yr timescale obtained by Venegas and Mysak (2000) . They isolated this timescale mode by coupling sea ice anomalies in the North Atlantic–Arctic Ocean (Greenland and Irminger Seas) to hemispheric sea level pressure anomalies. In their Fig. 8, there is an evident recurrent cycle of sea level pressure anomalies that forms a

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P. C. D. Milly, Sergey L. Malyshev, Elena Shevliakova, Krista A. Dunne, Kirsten L. Findell, Tom Gleeson, Zhi Liang, Peter Phillipps, Ronald J. Stouffer, and Sean Swenson

evolves, increasing attention is given to analysis of terrestrial impacts of climate change and to interactions between the physical-climate system and the earth’s biogeochemical processes. Model-based investigations in these areas require a land model with expanded treatment of many processes. Representation of biophysical and biogeochemical processes requires detailed physical information, for example, on the vertical distribution of water, ice, and temperature within the soil profile. Additionally

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Daniel Vila, Cecilia Hernandez, Ralph Ferraro, and Hilawe Semunegus

has two objectives: the reprocessing of the existing SSM/I database using an improved quality control (QC) scheme for antenna temperatures ( Vila et al. 2010 ) for the entire period 1987–2009 and the continuation in monitoring and retrieving of atmospheric and surface parameters such as precipitation ( Ferraro 1997 ), sea ice, and liquid water path ( Alihouse et al. 1990 ), among other products using SSMI/S measurements. These products, combined with those derived from other passive microwave

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Chuntao Liu and Edward Zipser

sensitive to the emission from liquid hydrometeors at low levels. The microwave radiances at high frequencies (37 and 85 GHz) are depressed with scattering of ice hydrometeors that may be used to estimate the amount of ice in the vertical column ( Vivekanandan et al. 1991 ). Because the ocean surface has a low microwave emissivity at lower frequencies, the emission signal from hydrometeors can be easily separated from the surface background. Therefore, it has been used to infer the surface rain rate

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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

experiment in this study was designed to study Typhoon Fengshen from its genesis stage to its mature stage ( Hashino et al. 2013 ). The winds, temperature, relative humidity, and geopotential heights in the NICAM simulation were initialized with the 0.5° ECMWF Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC) analysis at 0000 UTC 15 June 2008 ( Moncrieff et al. 2012 ) and integrated for one week only. The surface variables such as sea surface temperature (SST), sea ice cover, and soil moisture are initialized with 1

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N. Rebora, L. Molini, E. Casella, A. Comellas, E. Fiori, F. Pignone, F. Siccardi, F. Silvestro, S. Tanelli, and A. Parodi

1. Introduction The Mediterranean coastal cities, on both southwestern and northeastern sides of Italy, are accustomed to floods and flash floods. The Mediterranean Sea acts as a large heat and moisture reservoir—a source from which convective and baroclinic atmospheric systems get part of their energy. The interaction between convective processes originating on the warm sea and sudden orographic lifting very close to the coast produces heavy rainfalls. It often happens that the rain

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Alfonso Senatore, Giuseppe Mendicino, Hans Richard Knoche, and Harald Kunstmann

1. Introduction Observations show that sea surface temperatures (SSTs) often play a major role in midlatitude extreme precipitation events (e.g., caused by atmospheric rivers; Neiman et al. 2013 ). This is especially true in areas such as the Mediterranean ( Rebora et al. 2013 ), where sea–atmosphere interactions are influenced by complex coastal orography, leading to local meteorological processes whose complexity is often not fully interpreted by models ( Senatore et al. 2011 ). The impact

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