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S. J. D. D’Alessio, K. Abdella, and N. A. McFarlane

the mixed layer to a given atmospheric forcing is through the implementation of one-dimensional column models that account for vertical variations. Horizontal variations can be significant under certain conditions and in specific regions; however, their influence is either explicitly specified or omitted in these models. In column models a set of conservation equations governing the mean horizontal velocity components, temperature, and salinity are driven by fluxes of heat and wind stress imposed

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Sonya Legg, James McWilliams, and Jianbo Gao

fluid within a recirculating region over local topography, for example, above the Rhone Fan ( Hogg 1973 ; Madec et al. 1996 ) and above Maud Rise ( Alverson and Owens 1996 ), increasing the time during which fluid is exposed to the atmospheric forcing. The focus of this study is locally deep convection within regions of weak stratification relative to the surroundings. In several regions weaker stratification occurs within the center of a gyre-scale cyclonic circulation on a horizontal scale of

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Uwe Mikolajewicz, Ernst Maier-Reimer, and Tim P. Barnett

thermometer. Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-82-C-0019.Stouffer, R. J., S. Manabe, and K. Bryan, 1989: Interhemispheric asymmetry in climate response to a gradual increase of atmo spheric CO2. Nature, 342, 660-662.Wetherald, R. T., and S. Manabe, 1986: An investigation of cloud cover change in response to thermal forcing. Clim. Change, 8, 5-23.Wigley, T. M. L., and S. C. B. Raper, 1990: Natural variability of the climate system and detection of the greenhouse effect. Nature, 344

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Peter R. Oke, J. S. Allen, R. N. Miller, G. D. Egbert, J. A. Austin, J. A. Barth, T. J. Boyd, P. M. Kosro, and M. D. Levine

dominant physical processes, and to assess the model's sensitivity to variations in initial stratification, surface forcing, model domain size, and river forcing. Processes that are of particular interest in this study include the response to wind forcing and the generation of the northward flow that is commonly observed off Newport (44.65°N) over the innershelf after strong upwelling events. The performance of each experiment is objectively assessed by calculating a skill score (e.g., Murphy 1992

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Toshiaki Shinoda, Paul E. Roundy, and George N. Kiladis

wind burst of December 1992. J. Climate , 10 , 1706 – 1721 . Roundy , P. E. , and G. N. Kiladis , 2006 : Observed relationships between oceanic Kelvin waves and atmospheric forcing. J. Climate , 19 , 5253 – 5272 . Roundy , P. E. , and G. N. Kiladis , 2007 : Analysis of a reconstructed oceanic Kelvin wave dynamic height dataset for the period 1974–2005. J. Climate , 20 , 4341 – 4355 . Salby , M. L. , and H. H. Hendon , 1994 : Intraseasonal behavior of clouds

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C. Mertens and F. Schott

strong bursts of a few days duration with high sensible and latent heat fluxes that can exceed total heat fluxes of 1000 W m −2 (e.g., Leaman and Schott 1991 ). When the forcing is strong enough during a winter season to erode the near-surface and intermediate-layer stability, the weakly stratified underwaters are exposed to the surface buoyancy flux and deep convection can occur. In a typical convection season, the density gradient against the weakly stratified WMDW has nearly vanished around mid

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Zhihua Zheng, Ramsey R. Harcourt, and Eric A. D’Asaro

inevitably affected by surface waves. Close to the surface, waves break intermittently as they propagate rapidly. One important effect of wave breaking is the downward injection of kinetic energy as turbulence. The classical law-of-the-wall scaling predicts the turbulence dissipation rate ε ~ u * 3 / κ | z | in a neutral surface layer. However, near-surface measurements of ε in the ocean under strong wind and weak buoyancy forcings ( Agrawal et al. 1992 ; Drennan et al. 1996 ; Terray et al. 1996

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Xinfeng Liang and Andreas M. Thurnherr

1. Introduction Ocean mixing plays an essential role in driving the meridional overturning circulation (e.g., Munk and Wunsch 1998 ; Wunsch and Ferrari 2004 ) and for dispersing carbon, oxygen, and other biogeochemical tracers throughout the entire ocean. Outside of boundary layers, turbulent mixing in the ocean is closely related to internal waves (e.g., Munk 1981 ; Gregg 1989 ; Polzin et al. 1995 ). Although the importance of tidal forcing for driving internal waves and thus turbulence

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S. A. Thorpe, T. R. Osborn, D. M. Farmer, and S. Vagle

1. Introduction The subsurface bubble clouds produced by breaking waves are a powerful and persuasive indicator of the presence of processes of transport from the atmosphere to the upper ocean. They are important in near-surface optics ( Stramski and Tegowski 2001 ; Terrill et al. 2001 ), acoustic propagation and ambient noise in the sea ( Farmer and Lemon 1984 ) and particularly in air–sea gas flux. It is known from observations—for example, those reported by Thorpe and Hall (1983) , Thorpe

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Axel Timmermann and Gerrit Lohmann

et al. 1997 ; Grootes and Stuiver 1997 ). Whether these transitions are triggered by an external forcing or whether they are generated by internal climate instabilities is still unknown. However, the thermohaline circulation (THC) is expected to play an important role in this context. Evidence is reported both from observations ( Boyle and Keigwin 1982 , 1987 ; Crowley 1983 ; Sarntheim et al. 1996 ) and from climate models of different complexity ( Stommel 1961 ; Manabe and Stouffer 1988

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