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Nusrat Yussouf, Katie A. Wilson, Steven M. Martinaitis, Humberto Vergara, Pamela L. Heinselman, and Jonathan J. Gourley

representations of the rainfall–runoff process to generate products relevant to the occurrence of flash floods including maxima of streamflow, unit streamflow (streamflow normalized by upstream drainage area), and soil saturation. For this particular study, an adaptation of the water balance component of the Coupled Routing and Excess Storage (CREST; Wang et al. 2011 ) and the kinematic wave approximation of the Saint-Venant equations of one-dimensional open channel flow within EF5 were used. MRMS radar

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Amin K. Dezfuli, Benjamin F. Zaitchik, Hamada S. Badr, Jason Evans, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard

the recent Syrian drought . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 112 , 3241 – 3246 , doi: 10.1073/pnas.1421533112 . 10.1073/pnas.1421533112 Kingsmill , D. E. , P. J. Neiman , B. J. Moore , M. Hughes , S. E. Yuter , and F. M. Ralph , 2013 : Kinematic and thermodynamic structures of Sierra barrier jets and overrunning atmospheric rivers during a landfalling winter storm in Northern California . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 141 , 2015 – 2036 , doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-12-00277.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-12

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Maheswor Shrestha, Lei Wang, Toshio Koike, Yongkang Xue, and Yukiko Hirabayashi

employing the Pfafstetter scheme, and subbasins are divided into a number of flow intervals based on the time of concentration. All external parameters (e.g., land use, soil type, hillslope properties, and vegetation parameters) and a meteorological forcing dataset including precipitation are attributed to each model grid, in which water, energy, and CO 2 fluxes are calculated. A hillslope-driven runoff scheme employing a kinematic wave flow routing method is adopted in calculating runoff. For snow

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Xiaokang Wang, Xiquan Dong, Yi Deng, Chunguang Cui, Rong Wan, and Wenjun Cui

. Climate Dyn. , 51 , 1659 – 1670 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-017-3975-4 . 10.1007/s00382-017-3975-4 Lin , Y.-J. , R. W. Pasken , and H.-W. Chang , 1992 : The structure of a subtropical prefrontal convective rainband. Part I: Mesoscale kinematic structure determined from dual-Doppler measurements . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 120 , 1816 – 1836 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1992)120<1816:TSOASP>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1992)120<1816:TSOASP>2.0.CO;2 Liu , M.-L. , and Q.-Q. Wang , 2006

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Silvio Davolio, Francesco Silvestro, and Piero Malguzzi

parts: hillslopes and channel networks. These are addressed by using two kinematic scales that determine the base-level geomorphological response of the basin. The adopted infiltration scheme ( Gabellani et al. 2008 ) allows the modeling of “multipeak” events by simulating quite long periods (5–8 days) during which individual events can occur. The propagation of water in the first soil layer is described and a self-initialization of the model is produced between successive events. The schematization

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Yusri Yusup and Heping Liu

the dimensionless Obukhov atmospheric stability parameter , where z is the height above the surface level and is the Obukhov length. The Obukhov length is described by , where is virtual potential temperature (K); is frictional velocity, which can be measured by the eddy covariance system (m s −1 ); k is the von Kármán constant (0.4); g is acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m s −2 ); w is vertical velocity (m s −1 ); and is vertical kinematic heat flux, which can be measured by the

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Ulrike Romatschke and Robert A. Houze Jr.

. , Greco S. , and Scala J. , 1994 : Amazon coastal squall lines. Part I: Structure and kinematics . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 122 , 608 – 622 . Giovannettone, J. P. , and Barros A. P. , 2009 : Probing regional orographic controls of precipitation and cloudiness in the central Andes using satellite data . J. Hydrometeor. , 10 , 167 – 182 . Halverson, J. B. , Rickenbach T. , Roy B. , Pierce H. , and Williams E. , 2002 : Environmental characteristics of convective systems during TRMM

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Tomoko Nitta, Kei Yoshimura, and Ayako Abe-Ouchi

predictions of the temperature and amount of water in the canopy, soil, and snow. The freezing and melting of soil water are also considered. As shown in the gray box in the upper-left part of Fig. 2 , water inflow to the soil surface goes to infiltration or to surface runoff directly to rivers. The kinematic wave equation is used for river routing ( Ngo-Duc et al. 2007 ). Fig . 1. Land cover of the potential vegetation tiles used in this study: 1) continental ice, 2) broadleaf evergreen forest, 3

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Yadong Wang, Stephen Cocks, Lin Tang, Alexander Ryzhkov, Pengfei Zhang, Jian Zhang, and Kenneth Howard

. Tang , 2016 : Operational C-band dual-polarization radar QPE for the subtropical complex terrain of Taiwan . Adv. Meteor. , 2016 , 4294271, https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4294271 . 10.1155/2016/4294271 Wu , D. , K. Zhao , M. Kumjian , X. Chen , H. Huang , M. Wang , A. Didlake , Y. Duan , and F. Zhang , 2018 : Kinematics and microphysics of convection in the outer rainband of Typhoon Nida (2016) revealed by polarimteric radar . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 146 , 2147 – 2159 , https

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Tomoki Ushiyama, Takahiro Sayama, Yuya Tatebe, Susumu Fujioka, and Kazuhiko Fukami

saturated subsurface flow. This model assumes the water surface slope as the hydraulic gradient, which is different from the kinematic wave models that assume that the hydraulic gradient is equal to the topographic slope. The infiltration model used in this study is adjusted to the Kabul River basin, which has plateaus and valleys surrounded by mountains with steep and rugged mountain slopes maintained by strong physical weathering. The cover soil category is Leptosol, which is characterized by a very

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