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Jessica D. Lundquist, Justin R. Minder, Paul J. Neiman, and Ellen Sukovich

A. B. , Gottas D. J. , and Ralph F. M. , 2008 : Rain versus snow in the Sierra Nevada, California: Comparing radar and surface observations of melting level. J. Hydrometeor. , 9 , 194 – 211 . 10.1175/2007JHM853.1 Martner, B. E. , and Coauthors , 1993 : An evaluation of wind profiler, RASS, and microwave radiometer performance. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 74 , 599 – 613 . 10.1175/1520-0477(1993)074<0599:AEOWPR>2.0.CO;2 Marwitz, J. , 1983 : The kinematics of orographic airflow

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Paul A. Dirmeyer and Kaye L. Brubaker

surface evaporation and terminal precipitation events. Given the limitations of the reanalysis data we stick to the kinematic elements of the system. Ideally for calculation of a recycling climatology one would include Lagrangian tracers in the reanalysis model. At each time step, a fraction of the precipitation increment in the parcel is attributed to local evapotranspiration from the grid box over which the parcel lies (see Fig. 1c ). The method is not sensitive to random errors in evaporation and

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Isidora Jankov, Jian-Wen Bao, Paul J. Neiman, Paul J. Schultz, Huiling Yuan, and Allen B. White

>2.0.CO;2 Marwitz, J. , 1983 : The kinematics of orographic airflow during Sierra storms. J. Atmos. Sci. , 40 , 1218 – 1227 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1983)040<1218:TKOOAD>2.0.CO;2 Mattioli, V. , Westwater E. R. , Cimini D. , Liljegren J. S. , Lesht B. M. , Gutman S. I. , and Schmidlin F. J. , 2007 : Analysis of radiosonde and ground-based remotely sensed PWV data from the 2004 North Slope of Alaska Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 24 , 415

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A. L. Hirsch, A. J. Pitman, and V. Haverd

capacity, f root, m is the fraction of root mass in the soil layer, and β is a model parameter between 0 and 1. The leaf boundary layer resistance (i.e., r bl ) is given by where ν is the kinematic viscosity of air (m 2 s −1 ), U l is the ambient wind speed (m s −1 ), κ is the molecular diffusivity in air, l is the leaf or element cross stream dimension, and A b is a dimensionless coefficient for single-sided transfer on a flat plate ( A b = 0.7). REFERENCES Abramowitz, G. , 2012

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Murray D. MacKay

across the thermocline and thereby enhancing entrainment. Following Spigel et al. (1986) , the finite width of the thermocline resulting from billowing can be expressed as The kinematic effects of billowing are approximated here by assuming a linear temperature variation throughout the thermocline layer. This is simpler than the approach of Spigel et al. (1986) , who also include the energetics of billowing. Dissipation within the mixed layer is represented by and the transport of TKE to the

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Lintao Li, Albertus J. Dolman, and Zongxue Xu

the global water cycle. Part II: Moisture transports between Earth’s ocean basins and river catchments . J. Hydrometeor. , 6 , 961 – 984 , doi: 10.1175/JHM470.1 . Stohl, A. , Wotawa G. , Seibert P. , and Kromp-Kolb H. , 1995 : Interpolation errors in wind fields as a function of spatial and temporal resolution and their impact on different types of kinematic trajectories . J. Appl. Meteor. , 34 , 2149 – 2165 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(1995)034<2149:IEIWFA>2.0.CO;2 . Sun, B. , and

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Ming-Hsu Li, Ming-Jen Yang, Ruitang Soong, and Hsiao-Ling Huang

. , 239 , 19 – 32 . Jasper, K. , Gurtz J. , and Lang H. , 2002 : Advanced flood forecasting in Alpine watersheds by coupling meteorological observations and forecasts with a distributed hydrological model. J. Hydrol. , 267 , 40 – 52 . 10.1016/S0022-1694(02)00138-5 Lee, W-C. , Jou B. J-D. , Chang P-L. , and Deng S-M. , 1999 : Tropical cyclone kinematical structure retrieved from single-Doppler radar observations. Part I: Interpolation of Doppler velocity patterns and the GBVTD

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Yadong Wang, Stephen Cocks, Lin Tang, Alexander Ryzhkov, Pengfei Zhang, Jian Zhang, and Kenneth Howard

. Tang , 2016 : Operational C-band dual-polarization radar QPE for the subtropical complex terrain of Taiwan . Adv. Meteor. , 2016 , 4294271, https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4294271 . 10.1155/2016/4294271 Wu , D. , K. Zhao , M. Kumjian , X. Chen , H. Huang , M. Wang , A. Didlake , Y. Duan , and F. Zhang , 2018 : Kinematics and microphysics of convection in the outer rainband of Typhoon Nida (2016) revealed by polarimteric radar . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 146 , 2147 – 2159 , https

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Silvio Davolio, Francesco Silvestro, and Piero Malguzzi

parts: hillslopes and channel networks. These are addressed by using two kinematic scales that determine the base-level geomorphological response of the basin. The adopted infiltration scheme ( Gabellani et al. 2008 ) allows the modeling of “multipeak” events by simulating quite long periods (5–8 days) during which individual events can occur. The propagation of water in the first soil layer is described and a self-initialization of the model is produced between successive events. The schematization

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William P. Kustas, Jerry L. Hatfield, and John H. Prueger

/2 to 1/4 the magnitude estimated with the aircraft data. This indicated additional kinematic stress caused by form drag from isolated obstacles (i.e., trees, houses, and farm buildings), and the interaction of adjacent corn- and soybean fields are probably important factors affecting the effective surface roughness length for this landscape. Further supporting this result was the comparison of shear velocity u * measurements from the towers versus the aircraft, which indicated that u * from

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