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Ann E. Gargett and Dana K. Savidge

initial impetus for this work was to determine the effect of a dominant semidiurnal tide on Langmuir circulations, further separation of inertial oscillations from tidal signals was not carried out. Should such separation be required, rotary methods exist (spectral and empirical orthogonal function analysis), subject to the standard limitations imposed on spectral accuracy by record length ( Gonella 1972 ; Denbo and Allen 1984 ). In what follows, the use of the terms fluctuation , tide , and mean

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D. W. Wang, H. W. Wijesekera, E. Jarosz, W. J. Teague, and W. S. Pegau

that the mixing associated with Langmuir circulation (Lc) is responsible for deepening of the mixed layer and increasing the eddy viscosity. It is likely that Lc can persist much longer and reach much deeper depths than those by the direct injection of breaking wave motions ( Thorpe et al. 2003a ). The turbulent motions in this sublayer play a key role by transporting energy downward ( Feddersen et al. 2007 ). The quantification of the generation, transport, and dissipation of TKE is critically

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Fabrice Ardhuin and Alastair D. Jenkins

-carrying structures, typically vortices induced by wave breaking or Langmuir circulations. This hypothesis is expected to be well verified for swells of small amplitudes in the presence of a wind sea. In such a case, it is expected that the correlation of swell amplitude with the short wave breaking probability, and thus with the resulting horizontal distribution of τ = ( , ), only occurs at a higher order in the swell slope. Based on the conservation of energy, a source of TKE is clearly a sink of wave energy

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Nick Pizzo, W. Kendall Melville, and Luc Deike

1. Introduction Lagrangian drift at the ocean surface plays a fundamental role in the kinematics and dynamics of the surface layers of the ocean. In the case of Langmuir circulations, their generation and evolution comes about primarily from Kelvin’s circulation theorem and the vorticity of the wind-driven current. Furthermore, there are significant practical applications in predicting the transport of flotsam, jetsam, and pollution at the surface. The standard approach to this problem is to

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Gregory L. Wagner, Gregory P. Chini, Ali Ramadhan, Basile Gallet, and Raffaele Ferrari

. Karpinski , V. B. Shah , and A. Edelman , 2012 : Julia: A fast dynamic language for technical computing . arXiv, 27 pp. , . Bühler , O. , 2014 : Waves and Mean Flows . 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, 374 pp . Craik , A. D. , and S. Leibovich , 1976 : A rational model for Langmuir circulations . J. Fluid Mech. , 73 , 401 – 426 , . 10.1017/S0022112076001420 D’Asaro , E. A. , J. Thomson , A

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George Mellor

section 4 . Acknowledgments I profited from discussions with Mark Donelan, Gene Terray, and the folks at the Technical University of Delft. The research was funded by the NOPP surf-zone project and by ONR Grant N0014–01–1-0170. REFERENCES Craig , P. D. , and M. L. Banner , 1994 : Modeling wave-enhanced turbulence in the ocean surface layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 24 , 2546 – 2559 . Craik , A. D. D. , and S. Leibovich , 1976 : A rational theory for Langmuir circulation. J. Fluid Mech

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Dejun Dai, Fangli Qiao, Wojciech Sulisz, Lei Han, and Alexander Babanin

layer of the order of the wave height or even shallower ( Rapp and Melville 1990 ; Kantha and Clayson 2004 ; Noh and Min 2004 ; Gemmrich 2010 ), and existing schemes of diffusion of the surface-breaking turbulence down to the bottom of the mixed layer may have serious physical problems (e.g., Babanin et al. 2009 ). In this regard, vertical advection of the surface turbulence by Langmuir circulation is a much more plausible mechanism (e.g., Melville et al. 1998 ). Indeed, the surface waves and

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Gregory P. Gerbi, John H. Trowbridge, Eugene A. Terray, Albert J. Plueddemann, and Tobias Kukulka

simulation of the ocean mixed layer: The effects of wave breaking and Langmuir circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 34 , 720 – 735 . Plant , W. J. , 1982 : A relationship between wind stress and wave slope. J. Geophys. Res. , 87 , 1961 – 1967 . Plueddemann , A. J. , and R. A. Weller , 1999 : Structure and evolution of the oceanic surface boundary layer during the Surface Waves Processes Program. J. Mar. Syst. , 21 , 85 – 102 . Plueddemann , A. J. , J. A. Smith , D. M. Farmer , R

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James P. Lodge

, therefore,some concern that oversampling of the larger particleshad occurred. In fact, the theory of Langmuir andBlodgett (1946) indicated that 10-p particles should beoversampled with respect to 3-p particles by somethree orders of magnitude. This possibility was rejected on four counts: first, the uncorrected dataaccord generally with those of Woodcock in which thisairspeed problem did not enter ; second, the percentages of 10-p particles in the total impactor collectionson the ground and in the air

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Fabrice Ardhuin, Bertrand Chapron, and Tanos Elfouhaily

turbulence injected down to about 15% of the wave height ( Craig 1996 ; Donelan 1998 ) and Langmuir circulations, probably caused by the stretching of vorticity due to the Stokes drift vertical shear ( Craik and Leibovich 1976 ; Leibovich 1983 ), that penetrate much deeper than the region where the wave motion is felt. These mixing effects are not considered here, as we focus on depth-integrated equations. However, the “vortex force” concept, used by Craik and Leibovich to explain Langmuir circulations

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