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J. B. Nee, C. N. Len, W. N. Chen, and C. I. Lin

( Takahashi and Kuhara 1993 ; Knollenberg et al. 1993 ; Heymsfield and McFarquhar 1996 ). The results of these measurements all indicated high concentrations of small ice particles, with low ice water content. The cloud heights, extensive horizontal coverage, and geographic locations from these observations are similar to what we have observed. This kind of cloud should be easily detected by lidar if it has properties as reported. The lack of such observational data may be due to limited observation

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Ellis E. Remsperg

opportunity to viewvolcanic aerosol dispersion has been limited, however, because only one major eruption (Volcan deFuego in 1974 at 14.5-N) has injected substantialdebris into the lower stratosphere since the development of routine lidar observations. Reports of lidarobservations of this volcanic event can be found inFegley and Ellis (1975), Cadle et al. (1977), Russelland 'Hake (1977), Hirono et al. (1977), McCormicket al. (1978) and Clemesha and Simonich (1978). Here we briefly recall two published

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C. M. R. Platt and K. Bartusek

.,. ..,.".':i .: "":"'.. ,o:Backscatter Coefficient..~.~ ~- 3'0 krr~ l'0 - 3'0 krW 0'5 - 1'0 krfi~ 0.1 - O.5krff~ - ~ 0.1 kr~"[ Lidar re$otuhon I I 1500 1510Local timeFro. 3d. As in :Fig. 3a. Cloud A7. Plot of 7' (~') also included.1520 'Section 4a). The number of lidar observations on eachcloud varied from 4 to 20. The other

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Sue Ann Bowling

-771.Liou, K. N., 1971: Time-dependent multiple backscattering. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 824-827.--, and J. E. Hansen, 1971: Intensity and polarization for single scattering by polydisperse spheres: A comparison of ray optics and Mie theory. J. Atmos. $ci., 28, 995-1004. , and R. M. Schotland, 1971: Multiple backscattering and depolarization from water clouds for a pulsed lidar system. J. Atmos. Sol., 28, 772-784.Schotland, R. M., K. Sassen and R. Stone, 1971: Observations by lidar of linear

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Takanobu Yamaguchi, W. Alan Brewer, and Graham Feingold

with well-defined turbulence measurements such as those made by lidar (e.g., Mayor et al. 2003 ; Lenschow et al. 2012 ). In the current study, the dataset produced during VOCALS-REx represents significant opportunity for model comparison with observations. The objectives of this study can be described as 1) simulation of a nonprecipitating stratocumulus case with the ARW based on ship measurements during VOALS-REx, 2) development of a framework for comparison between model and observation, 3

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Kenneth Sassen, W. Patrick Arnott, David O'C. Starr, Gerald G. Mace, Zhien Wang, and Michael R. Poellot

Salt Lake City, Utah, and the Southern Great Plains Clouds and Radiation Testbed (SGP CART; Stokes and Schwartz 1994 ) site near Lamont, Oklahoma, where, serendipitously, a major cloud experiment—supported by ground-based polarization and Raman lidars, a millimeter-wave Doppler radar, and research aircraft—was taking place. An interesting aspect of this incursion of tropical cirrus into the continental United States is that spectacular optical displays were associated with the cirrus observed at

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Kuo-Nan Liou

: Automated observations of cloud nuclei, September 1969-August 1970. ]. Atmos. Sci., 28, 1295-1296.On Depolarization of Visible Light from Water Clouds for a Monostatic Lidar i~UO-NAN LIOIJInstitute for Space Studies, Goddard Space Flight C~nter, NASA, New York, N. Y. 1002511 November 1971 and 23 February 1972 Lidar (laser radar) has recently been employed inprobing terrestrial clouds and aerosols to obtain usefulinformation on their composition and structure (see

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M. Venkat Ratnam, G. Tetzlaff, and Christoph Jacobi

past two decades, with the advent of very high frequency (VHF) radars and lidars, considerable effort has been devoted in characterizing GW. Unfortunately, radars are blank in the upper stratosphere so that lidars have to fill this gap. Although these techniques can provide observations with excellent temporal and spatial resolution, the network of these ground-based instruments is coarse and hence the global morphology of GW activity as acquired with these techniques is poorly known. Satellite

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G. S. Kent, L. R. Poole, and M. P. McCormick

based on background aerosolmodels. Modifications required in these curves, if avolcanic aerosol model is assumed, will be discussedin section 5. Many of the observations described he, re were madeclose to the center of the polar vortex, and all that havebeen used in the analysis were made to the north of(on the cyclonic side of) the polar night jet stream. Aprevious lidar mission has shown that the stratosphericaerosol distribution has a very strong gradient acrossthis jet stream (McCormick et al

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B.A. Baum, T. Uttal, M. Poellot, T.P. Ackerman, J.M. Alvarez, J. Intrieri, D.O'C. Starr, J. Titlow, V. Tovinkere, and E. Clothiaux

lidar operated at a wavelength of10.6/~m and measured radial wind velocitie~ and backscattered signal intensity to ranges as greatl as 30 km.Although the ETL lidar can scan anywhere within 2~rsterad~ans, ~t was pointed vertically dunng most of theDECEMBER 1995 BAUM ET AL. 4213mission. Observations were recorded at a rate of 8 Hz,and 15-m range gates were averaged to 75 m in postprocessing. The lidar

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