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Mark Smalley, Kay Sušelj, Matthew Lebsock, and Joao Teixeira

the MERRA2 subsidence at 500 hPa is stronger than 1 hPa h −1 . Fig . 1. (a) The MAGIC polygon study region (orange bounds) and the frequency of all scenes that a given area has its highest cloud top below 2 km, as reported by the CloudSat 2B-GEOPROF-lidar Layer_Top, for June–July–August 2007. (b) Average vertically resolved cloud fraction across the MAGIC polygon outlined in (a) derived from the merged CloudSat and CALIPSO observations described in section 3c . c. Observations for

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Philippe Lopez and Peter Bauer

Measuring Mission (TRMM), Aqua , and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. More is expected from the recently launched CloudSat and from future missions such as the Global Precipitation Mission (2010–12). All these observations consist of either direct measurements of multifrequency radiances [mainly in the microwave (MW) and infrared bands], radar reflectivities, or lidar backscattering cross sections, or retrieved quantities (e.g., optical depth and rain rates). Ground-based measurements are

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Frédéric Tridon, Céline Planche, Kamil Mroz, Sandra Banson, Alessandro Battaglia, Joel Van Baelen, and Wolfram Wobrock

thermodynamics in the stratiform region. The vertical wind obtained from the DSD retrieval ( Fig. 8d ) and the relative humidity retrieved by the ARM Raman lidar are relevant in this context. Comparison of model results with profiling observations are challenging because a model cannot be expected to reproduce exact system evolution in space and time, and the representativeness of a single event time–height is unknown. One solution is to compare statistically the observations at SGP to a large number of

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Peter N. Blossey, Christopher S. Bretherton, and Johannes Mohrmann

evaluating the simulations against a range of observations, including in situ measurements, aircraft-borne radar and lidar, and satellite-based remote sensing, the model cannot be tuned to match a particular observation. In addition to the initial exploration of these cases in the present paper, we hope that these Lagrangian case studies will be used by other researchers to illuminate the processes that control real cloudiness transitions. The CSET field campaign ( Albrecht et al. 2019 ) took place over

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Filipe Aires, Francis Marquisseau, Catherine Prigent, and Geneviève Sèze

, such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the Terra and Aqua platforms or the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on board the Meteosat geostationary satellite have been investigated. These new observations have shown large improvements in their cloud detection and the cloud property retrieval ( Ackerman et al. 1998 ; Frey et al. 2008 ; Derrien and Gléau 2010 ). Furthermore, active measurements from the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal

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Daniel C. Hartung, Jason A. Otkin, Jonathan E. Martin, and David D. Turner

methods a. Instrumentation Interrogation of the 3D structure and evolution of the cold front draws upon a number of observational datasets. High spatial and temporal resolution surface observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) stations are employed, in addition to remote sensing observations taken from the Raman lidar and the Millimeter wavelength Cloud Radar (MMCR). In 2006, the Oklahoma

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Carolyn A. Reynolds, Rolf Langland, Patricia M. Pauley, and Christopher Velden

themselves had relatively small impact. They also found that observations in the core of the TC sometimes led to large differences in the analysis, but only small forecast improvements. They attributed this to the fact that current model resolutions are insufficient to effectively use the TC core data, an issue also pointed out by Aberson (2008) . Studies have also looked at the impact of lidar observations on forecasts. Harnisch et al. (2011) found that, in the ECMWF system, differential absorption

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Nicholas A. Gasperoni, Xuguang Wang, Keith A. Brewster, and Frederick H. Carr

1. Introduction With the increasing sophistication of data assimilation (DA) methods and accompanying numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, there is great potential to increase our understanding and forecasting accuracy of high-impact severe weather events. As operational NWP forecasts move toward grid resolutions that resolve convection explicitly, dense observations are needed in both space and time to be able to capture the small-scale and rapidly evolving features of such severe events

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Bruce A. Wielicki, J.T. Suttles, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Ronald M. Welch, James D. Spinhirne, Man-Li C. Wu, David O'C. Starr, Lindsay Parker, and Robert F. Arduini

measurements found anomalously low absorption (i.e., high reflectance) for optically thick cirrus.More recently, Foot (1988) found mixed results comparing aircraft microphysical measurements with radiance observations of liquid-water clouds and reasonable agreement for an ice cloud case. The present work continues the effort to both measure and model the radiative properties of cirrus clouds.Aircraft microphysical, radiometric, and lidar measurements, along with satellite radiance measurementsare

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David A. R. Kristovich, Neil F. Laird, and Mark R. Hjelmfelt

based on radar and in situ observations. Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 89 , 407 – 444 . Mayor , S. D. , 2001 : Volume imaging lidar observations and large-eddy simulations of convective internal boundary layers. Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin—Madison, 177 pp . Melfi , S. H. , J. D. Spinhirne , S-H. Chou , and S. P. Palm , 1985 : Lidar observations of vertically organized convection in the planetary boundary layer over the ocean. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. , 24 , 806 – 821

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