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Ryo Mizuta, Akihiko Murata, Masayoshi Ishii, Hideo Shiogama, Kenshi Hibino, Nobuhito Mori, Osamu Arakawa, Yukiko Imada, Kohei Yoshida, Toshinori Aoyagi, Hiroaki Kawase, Masato Mori, Yasuko Okada, Tomoya Shimura, Toshiharu Nagatomo, Mikiko Ikeda, Hirokazu Endo, Masaya Nosaka, Miki Arai, Chiharu Takahashi, Kenji Tanaka, Tetsuya Takemi, Yasuto Tachikawa, Khujanazarov Temur, Youichi Kamae, Masahiro Watanabe, Hidetaka Sasaki, Akio Kitoh, Izuru Takayabu, Eiichi Nakakita, and Masahide Kimoto

, changes in these phenomena are the key issues for regional impact assessment. Direct dynamical downscaling to regional climate models (RCMs) can include the effects of regional-scale topography, but it cannot include phenomena that are not simulated in the parent GCMs ( Xie et al. 2015 ). To overcome these problems, we have been employing a high-resolution AGCM ( Kitoh et al. 2016 ). Simulations of a warmer climate using an AGCM with 20-km resolution were performed (e.g., Murakami et al. 2012a ), in

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Kun Yang, Jun Qin, Long Zhao, Yingying Chen, Wenjun Tang, Menglei Han, Lazhu, Zhuoqi Chen, Ning Lv, Baohong Ding, Hui Wu, and Changgui Lin

with the energy and water cycle of the Asian monsoon, hydrological processes, ecosystem adaptation, and cryosphere changes over the TP ( Xu et al. 2008 ; Ma et al. 2008 ; Zhang et al. 2012 ). Nevertheless, these measurements are scarce relative to the broad area of the third pole. To facilitate process studies at a regional scale, land modeling and satellite remote sensing are intended to provide regional SM. For instance, the Global Land Data Assimilation System ( Rodell et al. 2004 ) provides

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Annmarie G. Carlton, Joost de Gouw, Jose L. Jimenez, Jesse L. Ambrose, Alexis R. Attwood, Steven Brown, Kirk R. Baker, Charles Brock, Ronald C. Cohen, Sylvia Edgerton, Caroline M. Farkas, Delphine Farmer, Allen H. Goldstein, Lynne Gratz, Alex Guenther, Sherri Hunt, Lyatt Jaeglé, Daniel A. Jaffe, John Mak, Crystal McClure, Athanasios Nenes, Thien Khoi Nguyen, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Suzane de Sa, Noelle E. Selin, Viral Shah, Stephanie Shaw, Paul B. Shepson, Shaojie Song, Jochen Stutz, Jason D. Surratt, Barbara J. Turpin, Carsten Warneke, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Paul O. Wennberg, and Xianling Zhou

(T. B. Nguyen et al. 2014b ; Xu et al. 2015a ). Or perhaps formation occurs regionally and thus is insensitive to local conditions ( Lin et al. 2013b ). Additionally, although some liquid water is needed for the formation of IEPOX-SOA, the SOA mass was shown to be weakly, and negatively, correlated with aerosol water, consistent with the conflicting effects of higher IEPOX accommodation but lower inorganic ion activity as water increases ( Gaston et al. 2014 ; T. B. Nguyen et al. 2014b

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Laura Briley, Rachel Kelly, Emily D. Blackmer, Andrea Vega Troncoso, Richard B. Rood, Jeffrey Andresen, and Maria Carmen Lemos

guidance for specific audiences based on their needs. The Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessments (GLISA) is a boundary organization in the climate science information arena and a U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISAs) project. GLISA serves the Great Lakes region, coproducing, bridging, and brokering climate information to regional practitioners. Though most practitioners, ultimately, settle on expert guidance, an

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Sushil K. Dash, Saroj K. Mishra, Sandeep Sahany, V. Venugopal, Karumuri Ashok, and Akhilesh Gupta

services, IMD uses models such as the Global Forecasting System (GFS) T574L64 (25 km), Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW; 9 km, 3 km), Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS; 9 km), and Warning Decision Support System–Integrated Information (WDSS-II) for forecasting in the time scales of 7 days, 1 day to 36 h, 6–24 h, and 0–2 h, respectively. It is planned to use GFS at T1534 resolution and the coupled model Coupled Forecast System (CFS), version 2, for

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X. Liang, S. Miao, J. Li, R. Bornstein, X. Zhang, Y. Gao, F. Chen, X. Cao, Z. Cheng, C. Clements, W. Dabberdt, A. Ding, D. Ding, J. J. Dou, J. X. Dou, Y. Dou, C. S. B. Grimmond, J. E. González-Cruz, J. He, M. Huang, X. Huang, S. Ju, Q. Li, D. Niyogi, J. Quan, J. Sun, J. Z. Sun, M. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhang, X. Zhao, Z. Zheng, and M. Zhou

near-calm regional flows. During strong wind, weak UHI conditions, however, moving thunderstorms bifurcate and move around cities because of building-barrier effects. This latter effect thus produces a precipitation minimum over and downwind of cities and maximum around the city in lateral boundary convergence zones and in the downwind reconvergence area. Dou et al. (2015) for the first time showed UHI magnitude as key to determining urban effects on summer thunderstorms. Based on 2008–12 Beijing

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Scott E. Stevens, Carl J. Schreck III, Shubhayu Saha, Jesse E. Bell, and Kenneth E. Kunkel

information on 1) time and precise location of every reported fatal crash in the United States and 2) estimates of actual precipitation conditions at the time and location of the fatal crash for the continental United States. Previous studies using high-precision precipitation data for fatal crashes have focused on regional or local scales ( Jaroszweski and McNamara 2014 ; Perrels et al. 2015 ). The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) NEXRAD reanalysis ( Nelson et al. 2017 ) provides

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Themistoklis Chronis and William J. Koshak

/or seasonal effects or other statistical artifacts. Sensitivity to regional and seasonal parsing. Regional parsing The LIS global-scale (i.e., ∼38°S–38°N) total flash counts and ε dataset employed in Fig. 1 are parsed into four regions ( Fig. 2 ) encompassing part of the Americas (0°–35°N, 120°–45°W; region 1), Africa (15°S–15°N, 20°W–45°E; region 2), Southeast Asia (10°S–20°N, 90°–140°E; region 3), and Australia (35°–16°S, 100°–160°E; region 4). Note that for region 1 we have excluded latitudes south

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Bernadett Weinzierl, A. Ansmann, J. M. Prospero, D. Althausen, N. Benker, F. Chouza, M. Dollner, D. Farrell, W. K. Fomba, V. Freudenthaler, J. Gasteiger, S. Groß, M. Haarig, B. Heinold, K. Kandler, T. B. Kristensen, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, T. Müller, O. Reitebuch, D. Sauer, A. Schäfler, K. Schepanski, A. Spanu, I. Tegen, C. Toledano, and A. Walser

Multiscale Chemistry Aerosol Transport Model (COSMO-MUSCAT) simulations. COSMO-MUSCAT is a regional dust model system that computes the size-resolved distribution of Saharan dust including radiative effects and feedbacks ( Heinold et al. 2007 , 2011 ). Simulations were run for the period April–July 2013 with 28-km horizontal grid spacing on a model domain that covers the Saharan Desert and the tropical Atlantic Ocean including the Caribbean. Combined with trajectory analysis, COSMO-MUSCAT shows the

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Henry F. Diaz and Thomas W. Swetnam

, especially from sparks along railways from wood-burning locomotives. The fledgling Forest Service had a tiny force of rangers with the responsibility for detecting and suppressing wildfires over enormous and remote areas. The national forests increased by 16 million acres in 1907 by executive order of Theodore Roosevelt in the last days of his presidency ( Egan 2009 ). Given the regional dryness, abundant slash fuels near frontier logging settlements, ubiquitous ignitions from human sources, and the lack

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