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Feng Ma, Lifeng Luo, Aizhong Ye, and Qingyun Duan

characteristics and propagation, especially in human-dominated regions ( Van Loon et al. 2016 ). The Heihe River basin, an endorheic river basin in northwest China, is an important region for agricultural production that is highly dependent upon irrigation with a history of approximately 2000 years ( Lu et al. 2015 ). Overexploitation of water resources of this basin has changed the hydrological processes and consequently impacts the hydrological drought characteristics and drought propagation, especially in

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Zhifeng Yang and Qiang Liu

changes have caused a series of water resource problems in some regions ( Zalewski et al. 1997 ; Zalewski 2000 ; Zhang et al. 2001 ; Mitsch 2005 ; Li et al. 2007 ; McVicar et al. 2007a ; Harper et al. 2008 ; Hurkmans et al. 2009 )—for example, the Yellow River basin (YRB) in China ( Liu and Cheng 2000 ), the Murray–Darling basin in Australia ( Petheram et al. 2010 ), and the Mississippi River basin in America ( Ziegler et al. 2005 ). To understand the influence of climate change on streamflow

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R. C. Blamey, A. M. Ramos, R. M. Trigo, R. Tomé, and C. J. C. Reason

located to the east of the city (see Fig. 1 ). These mountains can be described as “water towers” ( Liniger et al. 1998 ; Messerli et al. 2004 ). They contribute considerably to the total local discharge and are one of the key water sources for South Africa ( WWF 2013 ). Fig . 1. Topography (gray shading; m MSL) of the west coast of South Africa, location of SAWS stations (magenta/purple dots), and the spatial distribution of the three key river basins (color shading) within the Western Cape

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Christine M. Albano, Michael D. Dettinger, and Adrian A. Harpold

1. Introduction On the U.S. West Coast, and in many coastal regions in the world, atmospheric rivers (ARs; American Meteorological Society 2018 ) have strong associations with extreme precipitation, flooding, and wind hazards ( Waliser and Guan 2017 ). They also make beneficial contributions to precipitation, mountain snowpacks, runoff, and reservoir storage that supply freshwater to millions of people ( Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Guan et al. 2013 ). As a consequence of their importance, many

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Hisham Eldardiry, Asif Mahmood, Xiaodong Chen, Faisal Hossain, Bart Nijssen, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow, elongated corridors of high water vapor content transported from tropical and/or extratropical cyclones ( Browning and Pardoe 1973 ; Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Bao et al. 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2008 ; Ralph and Dettinger 2011 ; Eiras-Barca et al. 2018 ; Ralph et al. 2018 ). When an AR event makes landfall, the transport of large amounts of water vapor can lead to heavy precipitation and sometimes flooding, especially if the moisture-laden air

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Alan K. Betts, John H. Ball, and Pedro Viterbo

the hydrological budgets and surface energy balance for subbasins of the Mackenzie River, using data from 2 yr of the operational model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). This paper continues this work, with data from the ECMWF 40-yr reanalysis (ERA-40), which actually covers the 44 yr of 1968–2001. ERA-40 was run in several parallel streams ( Simmons and Gibson 2000 ). The analysis system uses a recent version of the model physics, including the land surface scheme

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Safat Sikder, Xiaodong Chen, Faisal Hossain, Jason B. Roberts, Franklin Robertson, C. K. Shum, and Francis J. Turk

is vulnerable to uncoordinated human activity in the upstream (higher elevation) regions, such as extraction, diversion, and dam impoundment of river waters. Some pertinent examples are the Farakka Barrage (on the Ganges River; Mirza 1998 ), the Gozaldoba Barrage (on the Teesta River, a tributary of the Brahmaputra; Nishat and Faisal 2000 ), the now-shelved Tipaimukh Dam on the Meghna River in India ( Sinha 1995 ), and the much-discussed Indian River Linking Project (IRLP; Misra et al. 2007

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Michael D. Warner, Clifford F. Mass, and Eric P. Salathé Jr.

1. Introduction The U.S. West Coast receives the majority of its precipitation during the winter months ( Neiman et al. 2008b ), with the most extreme events associated with atmospheric rivers (ARs; Ralph et al. 2005 , 2006 ; Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Warner et al. 2012 ). ARs are narrow regions of large water vapor transport that extend from the tropics or subtropics into the extratropics ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ). ARs are responsible for over 90% of the global meridional water vapor transport

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Rajesh R. Shrestha, Markus A. Schnorbus, and Alex J. Cannon

1. Introduction Predictability of seasonal streamflow response is crucial for assessing water availability in river basins and for managing extremes such as floods and drought. A popular method for seasonal streamflow prediction is to use historical climate traces with an appropriate model initialization at the time of forecast, usually referred to as the ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP; Franz et al. 2003 ; Shi et al. 2008 ; Shukla and Lettenmaier 2011 ). An improvement on the ESP

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Wahid Palash, Yudan Jiang, Ali S. Akanda, David L. Small, Amin Nozari, and Shafiqul Islam

1. Introduction a. Background Flooding poses a severe constraint on socioeconomic development in flood-prone areas across the world. On average, river flooding affects 21 million people and $96 billion in gross domestic product (GDP) worldwide each year, with developing countries seeing more of their GDPs exposed to flood risks than the developed world ( WRI 2015 ). South Asia is identified as one of the hardest-hit areas, with upward of 9.5 million people affected by annual floods. India and

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