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Xiaolei Wang, Yi Luo, Lin Sun, Chansheng He, Yiqing Zhang, and Shiyin Liu

1. Introduction The Amu Darya River (ADR) is the largest river in the Aral Sea basin, with a share of mountain discharge greater than 90%. The ADR supplies water to a large population and to the Aral Sea in the downstream region, accounting for two-thirds of total runoff in the Aral Sea basin ( Agal’tseva et al. 2011 ). Water availability in the ADR is of international importance because of water conflicts among countries in this region and the deteriorating Aral Sea environment. Streamflow in

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Feng Ma, Lifeng Luo, Aizhong Ye, and Qingyun Duan

characteristics and propagation, especially in human-dominated regions ( Van Loon et al. 2016 ). The Heihe River basin, an endorheic river basin in northwest China, is an important region for agricultural production that is highly dependent upon irrigation with a history of approximately 2000 years ( Lu et al. 2015 ). Overexploitation of water resources of this basin has changed the hydrological processes and consequently impacts the hydrological drought characteristics and drought propagation, especially in

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Zhifeng Yang and Qiang Liu

changes have caused a series of water resource problems in some regions ( Zalewski et al. 1997 ; Zalewski 2000 ; Zhang et al. 2001 ; Mitsch 2005 ; Li et al. 2007 ; McVicar et al. 2007a ; Harper et al. 2008 ; Hurkmans et al. 2009 )—for example, the Yellow River basin (YRB) in China ( Liu and Cheng 2000 ), the Murray–Darling basin in Australia ( Petheram et al. 2010 ), and the Mississippi River basin in America ( Ziegler et al. 2005 ). To understand the influence of climate change on streamflow

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R. C. Blamey, A. M. Ramos, R. M. Trigo, R. Tomé, and C. J. C. Reason

located to the east of the city (see Fig. 1 ). These mountains can be described as “water towers” ( Liniger et al. 1998 ; Messerli et al. 2004 ). They contribute considerably to the total local discharge and are one of the key water sources for South Africa ( WWF 2013 ). Fig . 1. Topography (gray shading; m MSL) of the west coast of South Africa, location of SAWS stations (magenta/purple dots), and the spatial distribution of the three key river basins (color shading) within the Western Cape

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E. Kerkhoven and T. Y. Gan

results with TAR scenarios produce vegetation shifts similar to those of the FAR and SAR scenarios in Canada (R. P. Neilson 2007, personal communication). So far, most climate change studies conducted on river basins have not considered the possible effects of vegetation migration on future hydrologic impacts. For example, Kerkhoven and Gan (2011) modeled the effects of climatic change on stream flows in the Athabasca River basin (ARB) and Fraser River basin (FRB) under a variety of SRES climate

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Christine M. Albano, Michael D. Dettinger, and Adrian A. Harpold

1. Introduction On the U.S. West Coast, and in many coastal regions in the world, atmospheric rivers (ARs; American Meteorological Society 2018 ) have strong associations with extreme precipitation, flooding, and wind hazards ( Waliser and Guan 2017 ). They also make beneficial contributions to precipitation, mountain snowpacks, runoff, and reservoir storage that supply freshwater to millions of people ( Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Guan et al. 2013 ). As a consequence of their importance, many

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Hisham Eldardiry, Asif Mahmood, Xiaodong Chen, Faisal Hossain, Bart Nijssen, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow, elongated corridors of high water vapor content transported from tropical and/or extratropical cyclones ( Browning and Pardoe 1973 ; Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Bao et al. 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2008 ; Ralph and Dettinger 2011 ; Eiras-Barca et al. 2018 ; Ralph et al. 2018 ). When an AR event makes landfall, the transport of large amounts of water vapor can lead to heavy precipitation and sometimes flooding, especially if the moisture-laden air

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Alan K. Betts, John H. Ball, and Pedro Viterbo

the hydrological budgets and surface energy balance for subbasins of the Mackenzie River, using data from 2 yr of the operational model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). This paper continues this work, with data from the ECMWF 40-yr reanalysis (ERA-40), which actually covers the 44 yr of 1968–2001. ERA-40 was run in several parallel streams ( Simmons and Gibson 2000 ). The analysis system uses a recent version of the model physics, including the land surface scheme

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Michael D. Warner, Clifford F. Mass, and Eric P. Salathé Jr.

1. Introduction The U.S. West Coast receives the majority of its precipitation during the winter months ( Neiman et al. 2008b ), with the most extreme events associated with atmospheric rivers (ARs; Ralph et al. 2005 , 2006 ; Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Warner et al. 2012 ). ARs are narrow regions of large water vapor transport that extend from the tropics or subtropics into the extratropics ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ). ARs are responsible for over 90% of the global meridional water vapor transport

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Rajesh R. Shrestha, Markus A. Schnorbus, and Alex J. Cannon

1. Introduction Predictability of seasonal streamflow response is crucial for assessing water availability in river basins and for managing extremes such as floods and drought. A popular method for seasonal streamflow prediction is to use historical climate traces with an appropriate model initialization at the time of forecast, usually referred to as the ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP; Franz et al. 2003 ; Shi et al. 2008 ; Shukla and Lettenmaier 2011 ). An improvement on the ESP

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