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Dawei Li, Rong Zhang, and Thomas Knutson

1. Introduction The rapid shrinking of summer Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) over the satellite era signals a dramatic change in the cryosphere ( Comiso et al. 2008 ). This observed rapid Arctic sea ice decline is also found to be the leading cause in the observed amplified Arctic surface warming over the last several decades ( Serreze et al. 2009 ; Screen and Simmonds 2010 ). If the observed rapid decline trend of September Arctic SIE were to continue, then the summer Arctic Ocean would become

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1. Introduction Interannual variability accounts for a large percentage of the variance of summer arctic sea ice on time scales longer than the annual cycle and has been increasing in recent years, indicating year-to-year forecasts of the annual minimum extent could become more challenging in the future ( Vihma 2014 ). Arctic sea ice variability has been linked to midlatitude influences on weather and climate on many time scales by driving anomalous wave trains, changing storm tracks, and

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Daniel Senftleben, Axel Lauer, and Alexey Karpechko

1. Introduction Observations show that the ongoing warming of Earth caused the September Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) to shrink by almost 50% since the 1970s ( Stroeve et al. 2012a ). But not only has the ice area decreased, the sea ice has also become thinner and younger (i.e., the amount of multiyear ice has decreased rapidly; Fowler et al. 2004 ; Maslanik et al. 2011 ); about 70% of the winter sea ice is now seasonal ice (i.e., first-year ice) ( Kwok 2018 ). Thinner ice melts out more

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F. Krikken and W. Hazeleger

1. Introduction The Arctic sea ice has shown a rapid decrease over the last few decades. An ice-free Arctic summer is already likely within the first half of this century ( Overland and Wang 2013 ). With the sea ice in the Arctic region retreating, the economic activities in the region are expanding and diversifying. More shipping lanes are becoming ice free, and natural resources will become better accessible ( Stephenson et al. 2013 ). These increasing economic activities offer opportunities

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K. J. Harnos, M. L’Heureux, Q. Ding, and Q. Zhang

1. Introduction September Arctic sea ice has decreased by more than 10% per decade since satellite observations began in 1979 ( Stroeve et al. 2012 ; Comiso et al. 2008 ). The historical record of sea ice satellite observations is relatively short ( Serreze and Stroeve 2015 ); however, there is a clear decline in September sea ice extent (SIE) since 1979 with a steepening in the trend since about 1997. There are a number of interdependent factors that contribute to declining SIE and include

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Lei Cai, Vladimir A. Alexeev, and John E. Walsh

1. Introduction Arctic sea ice has become thinner and “younger” ( Wadhams and Davis 2000 ; Maslanik et al. 2007 ; Serreze and Stroeve 2015 ). Submarine observations have shown a thinning trend of Arctic sea ice since 1958 ( Kwok and Rothrock 2009 ). The observed fraction of multiyear ice in March has decreased from 61% in 1984 to about 34% in 2018 ( NSIDC 2018 ). A reconstruction based on multisource observations estimates a 65% reduction of annual mean sea ice thickness from 1975 to 2012

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Sohey Nihashi and Kay I. Ohshima

1. Introduction Polynyas are defined as “any non-linear shaped opening enclosed within sea ice, and may contain brash ice and/or may be covered with new ice, nilas, or young ice” ( WMO 1970 ). Polynyas have been classified into two types: “latent heat” polynyas and “sensible heat” polynyas. Most Antarctic coastal polynyas are latent heat polynyas, which are formed by divergent ice motion driven by winds and ocean currents ( Morales Maqueda et al. 2004 ). Antarctic coastal polynyas are very high

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Marius Årthun, Tor Eldevik, and Lars H. Smedsrud

1. Introduction The Arctic Ocean ( Fig. 1 ) is currently losing sea ice in all regions during all seasons ( Serreze et al. 2007 ; Cavalieri and Parkinson 2012 ; Stroeve et al. 2012 ; Onarheim et al. 2018 ). These changes in the Arctic sea ice cover could potentially have both local and remote impacts on the climate system, influencing the surface energy budget ( Bhatt et al. 2014 ; Lee et al. 2017 ), oceanic ( Krishfield et al. 2014 ; Sévellec et al. 2017 ) and atmospheric ( Vihma 2014

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Claude Frankignoul, Nathalie Sennéchael, and Pierre Cauchy

1. Introduction There is increasing evidence that the seasonal to decadal sea ice changes superimposed on the observed decline in Arctic sea ice cover affect the atmospheric circulation. Model studies have suggested that North Atlantic sea ice anomalies influence the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)/Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the North Atlantic storm track ( Magnusdottir et al. 2004 ; Alexander et al. 2004 ; Kvamstø et al. 2004 ), while North Pacific sea ice primarily influences the

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Dyre O. Dammann, Uma S. Bhatt, Peter L. Langen, Jeremy R. Krieger, and Xiangdong Zhang

1. Introduction The recent dramatic decline of Arctic Ocean sea ice area ( Comiso and Nishio 2008 ), extent ( Stroeve et al. 2008 ), and thickness ( Rothrock et al. 2008 ; Kwok and Rothrock 2009 ) has reinvigorated research on the role of sea ice in climate variability and change. While sea ice conditions are primarily a response to atmospheric (e.g., Deser et al. 2000 ) and oceanic forcing (e.g., Polyakov et al. 2012 ), global climate model (GCM) studies using fixed sea ice concentration

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