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Paul J. Croft and Alan E. Gerard

Model, Global Spectral Model, and Nested Grid Model with initializations up to 24 h in advance of the start of the event. Initial conditions were examined at various standard levels using the General Meteorological Package (GEMPAK) Analysis and Rendering Program software. Satellite imagery included the 10.7-, 3.9-, and 6.7- μ m infrared channels. The 6.7- μ m water vapor imagery was analyzed particularly to determine the distribution of moisture and the position of synoptic and mesoscale features in

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George A. Isaac, Terry Bullock, Jennifer Beale, and Steven Beale

earliest papers which documents fog in the Grand Banks, distinguishing the predominant wind directions for fog along the coast of Newfoundland and over the Grand Banks, with easterly winds along the coast and southerly winds farther out to sea condensing water vapor originating from over the Gulf Stream. Both Marcet (1889) and Willett (1928) are probably the first most in-depth reviews which consider all fog types and occurrences that were known to exist in their time. Scoresby (1822) may be the

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Jian-Jian Wang, Hann-Ming Henry Juang, Kevin Kodama, Steve Businger, Yi-Leng Chen, and James Partain

Statistical Interpolation. These include the following. The use of GOES-9 derived moisture and wind data to provide important constraints for the RSM in data-sparse areas in the vicinity of Hawaii. Total column-integrated water vapor or precipitable water can be obtained from an algorithm based on a difference between the GOES-9 11- and 12- μ m channels (e.g., Dalu 1986 ). The University of Wisconsin automated cloud-drift wind system uses a loop of three consecutive infrared window channel images to

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Jun Li, Chian-Yi Liu, Peng Zhang, and Timothy J. Schmit

1. Introduction High spectral resolution infrared (IR) sounders such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) provide three-dimensional fields of atmospheric moisture and temperature with great vertical resolving power ( Chahine et al. 2006 ; Clerbaux et al. 2007 ; Smith et al. 2009 ). Improved information about the clear-sky horizontal and vertical water vapor and temperature in the preconvection environment leads to substantial

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Lei Zhang, Zhaoxia Pu, Wen-Chau Lee, and Qingyun Zhao

water vapor through the center of Jangmi at the initial time of the experiments that assimilated radar reflectivity observations (viz., experiments 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3). There is no difference between these three experiments except for the quality of the radar reflectivity observations. Overall, the assimilation of radar reflectivity data enhances the warm-core of Jangmi (centered near 134°E at the time) for the vertical levels below 600 hPa. However, with the different qualities of the data, the

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Ming Liu, Jason E. Nachamkin, and Douglas L. Westphal

. Both models predict smaller fluxes than the observations on average (negative biases) and the correlation coefficients are not as good as those of the solar fluxes in Fig. 2 . The negative biases become even larger in the 120-h forecast. These flux errors result from the dependence on the analyzed and predicted temperature and water vapor fields on other physical processes in addition to the radiative transfer algorithms. The RMS errors of the longwave fluxes, however, are much smaller than those

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Amit Bhardwaj, Vasubandhu Misra, Ben Kirtman, Tirusew Asefa, Carolina Maran, Kevin Morris, Ed Carter, Christopher Martinez, and Daniel Roberts

://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<0859:ASPAEO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<0859:ASPAEO>2.0.CO;2 Chou , M.-D. , and M. J. Suarez , 1994 : An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, 85 pp. Chou , M.-D. , and K.-T. Lee , 1996 : Parameterizations for the absorption of solar radiation by water vapor and ozone . J. Atmos. Sci. , 53 , 1203 – 1208 , https

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Ricardo Fonseca, Marouane Temimi, Mohan Satyanarayana Thota, Narendra Reddy Nelli, Michael John Weston, Kentaroh Suzuki, Junya Uchida, Kondapalli Niranjan Kumar, Oliver Branch, Youssef Wehbe, Taha Al Hosari, Noor Al Shamsi, and Abdeltawab Shalaby

convection). The radiation schemes are of comparable complexity, both using a correlated-k approach, with the RRTMG shortwave and RRTM longwave having a total of 30 spectral bands for wavelengths 10–50 000 cm −1 , while MSTRNX_AR5 has 29 spectral bands for the same range of wavelengths. Both cloud microphysics schemes, Thompson and NSW6, have prognostic equations for six classes of hydrometeors, namely, water vapor, cloud water, rainwater, snow, cloud ice, and graupel. However, Thompson is a double

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Jianguo Xia and Aiqin Chen

R 6 (mm) in Eq. (1) : R = R 6 /(RTIME × RATE). (1) In this equation, R 6 stands for the rainfall observed at the station during the past 6 h, RTIME (=3600 × 6) is the seconds of 6 h, and RATE (=10) is the ratio of rainfall to water vapor, which means that each gram of water vapor can produce 10 mm of rainfall over an area of 1 cm 2 (mm cm 2 g −1 ). The R for a station is assigned to the nearest fine grid point (the grid spacing is 1.0° lat–long) instead of using

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Paul J. Roebber, James M. Frederick, and Thomas P. DeFelice

altitude (length) from the triangle vertex to the opposite side, and υ h is the wind component at the vertex directed outward and parallel to h. An overbar denotes an average over the area of the triangle, and the summation is over each of the three triangle vertices. The first term on the right-hand side of (3) represents the vertical integral of the water vapor flux transport ( − ∇ · qV ), which can be partitioned into the horizontal advection of water vapor ( − V · ∇ q ) and convergence

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