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Axel Timmermann and Gerrit Lohmann

et al. 1997 ; Grootes and Stuiver 1997 ). Whether these transitions are triggered by an external forcing or whether they are generated by internal climate instabilities is still unknown. However, the thermohaline circulation (THC) is expected to play an important role in this context. Evidence is reported both from observations ( Boyle and Keigwin 1982 , 1987 ; Crowley 1983 ; Sarntheim et al. 1996 ) and from climate models of different complexity ( Stommel 1961 ; Manabe and Stouffer 1988

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Weiqing Han, Toshiaki Shinoda, Lee-Lueng Fu, and Julian P. McCreary

° × 4° bin. The wind stress, wind speed, air temperature, and specific humidity fields used to force the model are taken from the 3-day-mean ERA-40 fields. Net surface shortwave and longwave radiation fields are from 3-day-mean International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project flux data (ISCCP-FD; Zhang et al. 2004 ). Precipitation is from the CMAP pentad data, interpolated onto the 3-day resolution to be consistent with the ERA-40 and ISCCP forcing fields. These choices are based on a comparison

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Richard D. Ray and Gary D. Egbert

forcing of S 1 appears to be predominantly ocean loading by the S 1 atmospheric pressure tide. In some coastal areas, diurnal sea breezes may also be contributory. Diurnal thermal expansion of the water column is of little importance. Partly because of the smallness of the tide, and partly owing to the associated instrumental errors, there has, to our knowledge, never been a published global chart of S 1 . (F. Lyard and L. Carrère have recently computed a finite-element hydrodynamic solution of S 1

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William G. Large, Gokhan Danabasoglu, James C. McWilliams, Peter R. Gent, and Frank O. Bryan

Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ). Grima et al. (1999) report more realistic equatorial current variability with scatterometer wind forcing than with winds from an atmospheric model. Nonetheless, the atmospheric state is always completed with 6-hourly NCEP air temperature and humidity (August 1996–July 1997). Other forcing data are monthly precipitation over this period ( Xie and Arkin 1996 ) and the monthly climatological (1983–91) annual cycles from International Satellite Cloud

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Julien Jouanno, Frédéric Marin, Yves du Penhoat, Jean Marc Molines, and Julio Sheinbaum

( Bakun 1978 ). A secondary cooling of lower duration, intensity, and extent exists in these two regions. It peaks in November–December at the equator ( Okumura and Xie 2006 ) and in January–February along the northern coast ( Picaut 1983 ). It has been proposed that the semiannual cycle at the equator is due to a semiannual cycle of surface current divergence ( Helber et al. 2007 ) or thermocline shoaling ( Okumura and Xie 2006 ) as a consequence of local and remote wind forcing. However, recently

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Lothar Stramma, Peter Cornillon, Robert A. Weller, James F. Price, and Melbourne G. Briscoe

1985, in final form 18 October 1985) ABSTRACT Data from a surface mooring located in the Sargasso Sea at 34-N, 70-W between May 1982 and May 1984were compared with satellite data to investigate large diurnal sea surface temperature changes. Mooring andsatellite measurements are in excellent agreement for those days on which no clouds covered the site at the timeof the satellite pass. During the summer half-year at this site, there is a 20% chance of diurnal warming of

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Julian J. Schanze and Raymond W. Schmitt

1. Introduction In an ocean with a heat and freshwater budget that is steady in time, but spatially variable, there is an apparent negative density flux due to the nonlinearity of the equation of state. This would imply that the ocean should expand with zero net forcing at the surface. That is, the ocean is generally heated in low latitudes where surface temperatures (and thermal expansion coefficients) are high and cooled in high latitudes where surface temperatures (and expansion coefficients

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Richard Everson, Peter Cornillon, Lawrence Sirovich, and Andrew Webber

) performed an EOF analysis on data for 1979 inthe equatorial Atlantic; and Thompson et al. (1988) examined 30 years of engine intake temperatures in theshelf–slope region of the northwest Atlantic. The primary focus of such studies has been large-scale atmospheric forcing and the response of the SST field as ameasure of the response of the upper ocean in general. EOF analyses of satellite-derived SST fields havetended to focus on much smaller spatial scales (∼100km) and temporal scales (∼100 days

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Bo Qiu and Kathryn A. Kelly

-ocean heat balance in theKuroshio Extension region (30--40-N, 141-- 175 -E). Horizontal dependency is emphasized because, in additionto vertical entrainment .and surface thermal forcing, horizontal advection and eddy diffusion make substantialcontributions to changes in the upper-ocean thermal structure in this region. By forcing the model using thewind and heat flux data from ECMWF and the absolute sea surface height data deduced from the Geosat ERM,the mixed-layer depth (h,,) and temperature (Tin

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Kai Håkon Christensen, Ann Kristin Sperrevik, and Göran Broström

for this variability. Our focus is on the response to the large-scale wind forcing in the Skagerrak, which is associated with Ekman transport across the Skagerrak and upwelling and downwelling along the Norwegian and Danish coasts. We use the four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) analysis scheme in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), assimilating satellite sea surface temperature and in situ salinity and temperature from a variety of sources. The observations also include

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