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Alain Caya, René Laprise, and Peter Zwack

also appear several physical forcing terms. The contribution of these terms can either be combined with the other nonlinear terms of the equations in the SI scheme, or an inviscid interim time step can be performed without forcing, applying forcing corrections afterward. The former method is the more traditional one; we will refer to the second as the splitting method (SM) ( Marchuk 1974 ). To better understand the difference between the two methods, let us consider the following canonical

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had reached theAtlantic in the vicinity of Hal ifax, Nova Scotia, when the windshifted to northwesterly on the New England coast withincreasing force. The following maximum wind-velocities werereported : Barliegat City, New Jersey, 52 miles, nw. j Hatterasand Kittyhawk, North Carolina, 44, ne. ; Sandy Hook, NewJersey, 43, nw.; Block Island, Rhotle Inland, 46, n. Afterpassing east of the coast, this storm apparently moved in Rnortheast direction, following the geueral course of northAtlantic storm8

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(3llasf V. Relative variations of the Northwest Temperataree aad the HorbcmW Magnetic Force at Toronto. Wa&ktoon, and San Antonio.A L& e -- 16- /9-22-24- /9-24- //-9/63/86/O2//8202623//823283 U343621 -- 10- /4- 17- /r-/5- 23- 13-5579//6a19262226372/223/383.536453322-F f -A -Lr33 2104/46-9-////O//12/317/52 /3/3/304 J333841474547574328A .\% 3+2-2-6-9-5- //+/+2f //t/sf//f 8-2-/t 1.4f 24f20+2/+26f 2 2+9+5f 19f 23+ZJ+27+29f /20-5-9-4-9-/e-9-2+7+i?+3+/O+40+/.5+2/$16f /96 29f 12f /2420+26t22

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Jonathan E. Martin

further elucidate the circumstances leading to the development of the snowband, output from a numerical forecast of this cyclone made using the University of Wisconsin–Nonhydrostatic Modeling System (UW-NMS) is used. UW-NMS is described by Tripoli (1992a , b) . The model employs a two-way interactive, moveable nesting scheme, which allows for the simultaneous simulation of large synoptic-scale forcing as well as frontal-scale forcing. Prognostic variables carried by the model include u, υ, w, and

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Zaitao Pan, Moti Segal, and Raymond W. Arritt

circulation over the western U.S. elevated terrain, which supports the LLJ in the southern High Plains ( Tang and Reiter 1984 ). As implied by the aforementioned studies, the present consensus is that the most important forcing mechanisms for the LLJ are the response to diurnal boundary layer evolution over slopes and elevated terrain and the dynamical relationship to upper-level flow. It has to be emphasized that these two types of processes must not be viewed as competing or mutually exclusive

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DR. NILS EKHOLM

the Monthly Weather Review. February 1899, and in the Weather Bureau Climate S; t h p Re1mrt.s. February 1S99, for the different Stat,es. (6) For R study r ~f sniiw*stiirrus with reference to wind direction andcyclonic action see A. B. Crane. Riiuwst.orms at Chicago. Am. Met. Jnurn. lS92. pp. 63-66., ..;ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE DEVIATING FORCE OF THEEARTH'S ROTATION ON THE MOVEMENT OF THEAIR.(l)[Communicated t.o the International Meteorological Congress at Chicago. Ill., August, IS*.]'By DR. NILS

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, New Jersey, $2, E.; Hatt,era,s, North Carolina, 38, se.; Cape Henry, Virginia., 12, nw. This clistmurbance could not be traced to tlie north of tlie middle Atla~iit,ic coast, as it probablylost niiich of its energy and clissppeared near Sandy Hook, New Jersey.NORTH ATLANTIC STORMS DURING JUNE, 1853.[IrrssitrP pxprvssr il in invhrs mid iii millitm~trrs; tcrincl-force by acde of 0-10.)Clinrt ii. eshibi t.s the t,racks of t.lie prinqipa.1 depressions thatlia,.ve moved mer the north Atliintic ocean

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-15.5(, wind s. by m., force 10 ; ves-sels to the sonthwttrd of N. 50°, experienced stroug westerlygales with snow, while vessels to tlie east of the centre hadniot1er:ite hoiitherly gales. By the morning of the 3rt1, the dis- tnr1,auce hat1 movetl Iwjoud the rauge of t h e observations anda great increase of pressure net i n over the ocean .south oftliefiftieth pardlel and between W. 30° and 4 5 O , where clearingweL3ther with motlerate breezes generally prevailed.11.-This is probably it

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WIV. 2~Captain Pe:~rce, of the s. s. Greece in about K. 48O 401,W. 25O, reported: I September l6tl1, i.15 p. in., (N. 4 8 O 601,W. 23O 501) barometer 39.2.(741.7), tlie wind, which had previ- ously hauled from se. to sse. during tlie afternoon and moderatedfrom strong to fresh gale, now commenced to blow with in-creased force. Midnight, hcavy gale from w. by s. ; barometer,29.0 (73G.G), passing showers ofrein. September 17th) 4. a. m., gale continues to blow fkorn w. by s. with decreasing force

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Prof. W. H. JACKSON

Mrs. HerbertVivian in the November number of the Wide World Magazine.There are several photographic illustrations, showing suchobjects as the r c storm crucifix, the hail cross, the r r stormcandle, potent to drive away hail-storms, a talisman thatprotects its wearer against lightning and tempest, and anancient letter of protection that insures safety from a mul-titude of ills, including all the baneful influences of theatmosphere.AN ELEMENTBRY METHOD OF DERIVING THEDEFLEUTING FORCE DUE TO THE

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