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Olivier P. Prat, Brian R. Nelson, Elsa Nickl, and Ronald D. Leeper

and climatic analysis and applications. Here, we use “long-term” in the context of satellite observation platforms that have time series spanning over two to three decades. Those SPPs are among the multitude of gridded SPPs that exist and that rely on different physical retrieval principles, different bias adjustment techniques and reference datasets ( Michaelides et al. 2009 ; Kidd et al. 2010 ; Kidd and Huffman 2011 ; Tapiador et al. 2012 ; Prat and Nelson 2020 ). PERSIANN-CDR, GPCP, and

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Julie M. Thériault, Nicolas R. Leroux, and Roy M. Rasmussen

.g., Groisman et al. 1991 ; Yang et al. 1995 ; Thériault et al. 2012 ) have shown snowfall undercatch to increase with increasing wind speed as a result. In addition, observations show a significant variability in undercatch for a given wind speed due to the wide variety of snow crystal types present in the atmosphere ( Yang et al. 1995 ), as well as with snowfall intensity ( Colli et al. 2020 ). Accurately measuring snowfall precipitation is of importance for hydrological forecasting, water management

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Hua Su, Robert E. Dickinson, Kirsten L. Findell, and Benjamin R. Lintner

. Fig . 16. Flowchart of the mechanisms that explain the observed negative correlation between April snow depth and early warm-season precipitation. Our findings demonstrate that spring snow conditions may contribute to forecasting the early warm-season precipitation over northern continental interior regions. Such snow datasets could become increasingly available via enhanced observational capacity and improved data assimilation techniques ( De Lannoy et al. 2010 ; Su et al. 2010 ). However, the

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Noah S. Brauer, Jeffrey B. Basara, Pierre E. Kirstetter, Ryann A. Wakefield, Cameron R. Homeyer, Jinwoong Yoo, Marshall Shepherd, and Joseph. A. Santanello Jr.

, R. Cremonini , and E. Gorgucci , 2008 : Differential reflectivity calibration for operational radars . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 25 , 1542 – 1555 , . 10.1175/2008JTECHA1037.1 Blanchard , D. O. , 1998 : Assessing the vertical distribution of convective available potential energy . Wea. Forecasting , 13 , 870 – 877 ,<0870:ATVDOC>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0434(1998)013<0870:ATVDOC>2.0.CO;2 Bowman

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Georg Lackner, Daniel F. Nadeau, Florent Domine, Annie-Claude Parent, Gonzalo Leonardini, Aaron Boone, François Anctil, and Vincent Fortin

water cycle. Studies have highlighted difficulties in modeling dry sites, stating that the models capture energy limitations better than water limitations ( Engstrom et al. 2006 ), thus leading to increased errors for simulated latent heat fluxes. In this study, we use eddy covariance data to analyze the Arctic surface energy balance and examine the performance of two LSMs: SVS and ISBA. SVS will soon replace the old version of ISBA and will be used as an operational weather forecasting model in

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Sho Kawazoe and William J. Gutowski Jr.

-rain-producing mesoscale convective systems . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 133 , 961 – 976 . Schumacher, R. S. , and Johnson R. H. , 2006 : Characteristics of U.S. extreme rain events during 1999–2003 . Wea. Forecasting , 21 , 69 – 85 . Shepard, D. S. , 1984 : Computer mapping: The SYMAP interpolation algorithm. Spatial Statistics and Models, G. L Gaile and C. J. Willmott, Eds., D. Reidel, 133–145. von Storch, H. , Langenberg H. , and Feser F. , 2000 : A spectral nudging technique for dynamical downscaling

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Yixin Wen, Qing Cao, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Yang Hong, Jonathan J. Gourley, Jian Zhang, Guifu Zhang, and Bin Yong

of the range-dependent error in radar-rainfall estimates due to the vertical profile of reflectivity . J. Hydrol. , 402 , 306 – 316 . Lakshmanan, V. , Fritz A. , Smith T. , Hondl K. , and Stumpf G. J. , 2007 : An automated technique to quality control radar reflectivity data . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 46 , 288 – 305 . Maddox, R. , Zhang J. , Gourley J. J. , and Howard K. , 2002 : Weather radar coverage over the contiguous United States . Wea. Forecasting , 17

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Trent W. Ford, Liang Chen, and Justin T. Schoof

example of what was described by Cohen (2016) as “weather whiplash,” the evolution from one climate extreme to one of the opposite sign in a relatively short time period. Previous studies have documented transitions in precipitation extremes, herein referred to as simply transitions, in many regions globally using a wide variety of statistical and modeling techniques (e.g., Ji et al. 2018 ; Swain et al. 2018 ; Chen et al. 2019 ). Christian et al. (2015) found that annual precipitation extremes

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Xiaoyang Li, Ryuichi Kawamura, Atsuko Sugimoto, and Kei Yoshimura

and Jouzel 1979 ) and for condensation from vapor to ice under −20°C under supersaturation conditions ( Jouzel and Merlivat 1984 ). A spectral nudging technique is adopted to produce more realistic atmospheric circulation and to improve the IsoRSM’s simulation ( von Storch et al. 2000 ; Kanamaru and Kanamitsu 2007 ). Large-scale temperature and wind fields are forced toward the reanalysis forcing fields. Conversely, small-scale details, reflecting the interplay between atmospheric circulation and

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Jefferson S. Wong, Xuebin Zhang, Shervan Gharari, Rajesh R. Shrestha, Howard S. Wheater, and James S. Famiglietti

-Interim (WFDEI) was developed to provide datasets of subdaily (3-hourly) and daily meteorological data, with global coverage at 0.5° spatial resolution (~50 km) from 1979 to 2012 ( Weedon et al. 2014 ). WFDEI has been updated to provide datasets up to 2016. Using the same methodology as WATCH ( Weedon et al. 2011 ), WFDEI was constructed based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis product ( Dee et al. 2011 ), combined with the Climatic Research Unit (CRU

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