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Lenka Novak and Rémi Tailleux

, variations in APE are a much better predictor of variations in kinetic energy. However, a major difficulty with Lorenz’s APE is that it is only defined in a global and volume-integrated sense. With an increasing emphasis of climate change research on regional variability in high-resolution climate models, there is an increasing need for locally definable diagnostics that can summarize large amounts of data. While the local character of kinetic energy is already well established and widely used, the

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Leslie M. Hechtel, Roland B. Stull, and Chin-Hoh Moeng

- Crop C Bare soil l~o. 9. Map of part of the BLX83 site, showing field patterns and land-use classifications reconstructed from aerialphotos and Landsat imagery. Note that many of the fields are roughly square or rectangular, with sides typically 0.25or 0.5 miles (402 or 805 m) in length, although some larger and smaller fields are present.other features on the map were reconstructed usingaerial photos taken by the Oklahoma Agricultural Stabilization and

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F. J. Robinson, S. C. Sherwood, and Y. Li

. Hydrometeor. , 5 , 1223 – 1246 . Wicker , L. , and W. Skamarock , 2002 : Time-splitting methods for elastic models using forward time schemes. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 130 , 2088 – 2097 . Williams , E. , T. Chan , and D. Boccippio , 2004 : Islands as miniature continents: Another look at the land-ocean lightning contrast. J. Geophys. Res. , 109 . D16206, doi:10.1029/2003JD003833 . Zipser , E. J. , 2003 : Some views on “hot towers” after 50 years of tropical field programs and two years

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Osamu Isoguchi and Hiroshi Kawamura

wind directions near coasts is beyond the scope of the present study but will be required for a quantitative discussion in the future. To get land/open-ocean wind fields at around the SAR observation time, Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS) data and the NCEP–NCAR winds are used. AMeDAS, a land-based regional meteorological observation system operated by the Japan Meteorology Agency (JMA), automatically obtains precipitation amount, wind direction, wind speed, temperature, and

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Simon P. Alexander, Kaoru Sato, Shingo Watanabe, Yoshio Kawatani, and Damian J. Murphy

frontal activity and deep convection ( Fritts and Nastrom 1992 ; Eckermann and Vincent 1993 ; Tsuda et al. 1994 ; Alexander and Pfister 1995 ). Case studies using the WRF Model in the Southern Ocean indicate the role of moisture and convective updrafts in generating gravity waves ( Plougonven et al. 2015 ). Large NGW activity was observed and modeled around the subtropical jet ( Sato 1994 ; Kawatani et al. 2004 ; Alexander et al. 2008a ). Individual OGWs in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere

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John E. Kutzbach and Peter J. Guetter

model experiments at 3000-year intervals for the past 18 000 years were made to estimatethe magnitude, timing, and pattern of the climatic response to prescribed changes of orbital parameters (dateof perihelion, axial lilt, eccentricity) and glacial-age lower boundary conditions (ice sheets, land albedo, sea iceand sea surface temperature). The experiments used the Community Climate Model (CCM) of the NationalCenter for Atmospheric R~earch (NCAR). The response of monsoon circulations and tropical

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Donald H. Lenschow and B. Boba Stankov

boundary layer over both ocean and land surfaces. We found that the integral scales of the secondorder moment quantities are 0.67 f 0.09 that of the variables themselves. Consequently, only the second-ordermoment in- scales are presented here. These results are used to calculate the averaging lengths necessaryto measure second-order moment quantities to a given accuracy. We found that a measurement length of 10to 100 times the boundary-layer height is required to measure variances to 10% accuracy

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Horace R. Byers and Harriet R. Rodebush

-scale horizontal convergence in the low levels was the necessary condition for thunderstorm convection.Traveling or semipermanent synoptic features of the region producing this convergence were found to be toorare or too remote to account for the almost daily thunderstorm activity of the interior of the Floridapeninsula.Low-level horizontal convergence caused by the afternoon sea breezes entering the peninsula from bothsides was found to be the most rational explanation of the thunderstorms. Using the Bellamy

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Stephen E. Lang, Wei-Kuo Tao, Xiping Zeng, and Yaping Li

well-known biases especially since simulated cloud characteristics, which are directly linked with simulated cloud processes, are often used as a proxy for real clouds to indirectly retrieve cloud processes remotely (e.g., Tao et al. 1990 , 1993 , 2000 , 2001 , 2011 ; Olson et al. 1999 , 2006 ; Smith et al. 1994 ; Yang and Smith 1999a , b , 2000 ; Shige et al. 2004 , 2007 , 2008 , 2009 ; Grecu et al. 2009 ). A lot of bulk microphysics schemes can trace their origins to the Lin et al

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Mark J. Rodwell and Brian J. Hoskins

paper is used to investigate the mechanisms that sustain thelow-level East African jet. The East African Highlands and a land/sea contrast in surface friction are shown tobe essential for the existence and concentration of cross-equatorial flow. The question of inertial instability asair crosses the equator is addressed from a potential vorticity (PV) perspective. Surface friction and local diabaticheating provide mechanisms for material modification of PV and both are important for the maintenance

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