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James P. Lodge

, therefore,some concern that oversampling of the larger particleshad occurred. In fact, the theory of Langmuir andBlodgett (1946) indicated that 10-p particles should beoversampled with respect to 3-p particles by somethree orders of magnitude. This possibility was rejected on four counts: first, the uncorrected dataaccord generally with those of Woodcock in which thisairspeed problem did not enter ; second, the percentages of 10-p particles in the total impactor collectionson the ground and in the air

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Gregory P. Gerbi, John H. Trowbridge, Eugene A. Terray, Albert J. Plueddemann, and Tobias Kukulka

simulation of the ocean mixed layer: The effects of wave breaking and Langmuir circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 34 , 720 – 735 . Plant , W. J. , 1982 : A relationship between wind stress and wave slope. J. Geophys. Res. , 87 , 1961 – 1967 . Plueddemann , A. J. , and R. A. Weller , 1999 : Structure and evolution of the oceanic surface boundary layer during the Surface Waves Processes Program. J. Mar. Syst. , 21 , 85 – 102 . Plueddemann , A. J. , J. A. Smith , D. M. Farmer , R

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Alexander W. Fisher, Lawrence P. Sanford, and Malcolm E. Scully

;2 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1994)024<2546:MWETIT>2.0.CO;2 Craik , A. D. D. , and S. Leibovich , 1976 : A rational model for Langmuir circulations . J. Fluid Mech. , 73 , 401 – 426 , . 10.1017/S0022112076001420 Drennan , W. M. , M. A. Donelan , E. A. Terray , and K. B. Katsaros , 1996 : Oceanic turbulence dissipation measurements in SWADE . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 26 , 808 – 815 ,<0808:OTDMIS>2

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Fabrice Ardhuin, Bertrand Chapron, and Tanos Elfouhaily

turbulence injected down to about 15% of the wave height ( Craig 1996 ; Donelan 1998 ) and Langmuir circulations, probably caused by the stretching of vorticity due to the Stokes drift vertical shear ( Craik and Leibovich 1976 ; Leibovich 1983 ), that penetrate much deeper than the region where the wave motion is felt. These mixing effects are not considered here, as we focus on depth-integrated equations. However, the “vortex force” concept, used by Craik and Leibovich to explain Langmuir circulations

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Conrad L. Ziegler, Peter S. Ray, and Donald R. MacGorman

2098 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 43, No. 19Relations of Kinematics,Microphysics and Electrificationin an Isolated Mountain ThunderstormCONRAD L. ZIEGLER, PETER s. RAY,* AND DONALD R. MAORMAN National Severe Storms Laboralory, NOAA, Norman. OK 73069 (Manuscript received 26 August 1985, in final form 7 April 1986)ABSTRACTThis paper ad- aspects of the airflow, microphysics, and electrification in a mountain thunderstormwhich occurred on 7 August 1979 over the Langmuir

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Yign Noh and Yeonju Choi

in Noh et al. (2004 , 2009 ) and Goh and Noh (2013) , in which both Langmuir circulation and wave breaking are realized. The wavelength and height for U S were fixed as 40 and 1 m, and was fixed as = 0.01 m s −1 , resulting in La = 0.45. The simulation was carried out to reproduce the formation of a diurnal thermocline under constant and Q 0 , starting either from the homogeneous mixed layer with uniform density and from the stratified layer with a preexisting thermocline. Integration

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reports did notgive a complete enough picture, so that in the annals ofment of the Army, Washington 25, D. C.I Present affiliation: Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratories, Ordnancc Corps, Depart-"-..*.. ..... . .. . . . . ..-I-.-... +-::* .......,~80'+IS*75' 70'8FIGURE 1.-Solid track is the path of the hurricane of October10-16,1947, as presented by Langmuir [l]. Note the dashedcircle outlining the "approximate area of the clouds of the hurri-cane" at the time of seeding (1138-1208 E S T ). (This figure

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S. A. Thorpe and A. J. Hall

survey atthe position of the displaced band in Fig. 4. The separation and persistence of the banded targets(DD, Fig. 2) seen in the 90-kHz records are consistentwith their being caused by Langmuir circulation, creating bands of sound-scattering bubble clouds roughlyparallel to the wind direction (see Thorpe 1984; Zedeland ?armer 1991 ). A further example is shown in Fig.5. The persistence time of 5-10 min in the alongshorecurrent of 13 cm s-~ in Fig. 2 (or 36 cm s-~ measuredby the 80-kHz sonar at

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Lachlan Stoney, Kevin J. E. Walsh, Steven Thomas, Paul Spence, and Alexander V. Babanin

the upper ocean when momentum is transferred to the subsurface through wave breaking and Langmuir circulation. Wave breaking, however, only injects turbulence at the scale of wave height (meters) and then relies on vertical diffusion of the turbulence, while Langmuir circulation provides vertical advection of the turbulence at the rate of cm s −1 —both the diffusion and advection are much slower than the turbulence vortex turnover and hence the lifetime (e.g., Babanin et al. 2009 ). In the

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S. A. Thorpe and T. R. Osborn

et al. 2002 ) produced by breaking waves. No evidence has been found that below the Langmuir circulation convergence regions, commonly marked on the water surface by windrows, ramps are more or less common than elsewhere in spite of the expectation that the downwind flow, and cross-wind component of vorticity, may be greater in such regions ( Thorpe 2004 ), favoring shear instability with billow and braid formation. Any connection between the two phenomena, temperature ramps and Langmuir

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