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Zexuan Xu, Alan M. Rhoades, Hans Johansen, Paul A. Ullrich, and William D. Collins

from the Sierra Nevada ( Wilkinson et al. 2002 ). In addition to resolving the Sierra Nevada mountain range and Central Valley, the accurate representation of California’s Mediterranean climate, characterized by cold, wet winters and warm, dry summers, is critical. California receives one-half of its total annual precipitation during the winter months from December to February (DJF; California Data Exchange Center 2016 ), of which two-thirds precipitates in the northern and mountainous parts of

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Zuohao Cao, Murray D. Mackay, Christopher Spence, and Vincent Fortin

Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) bulk formula, which requires inputs of zonal and meridional components of 10-m wind, total cloud cover, 2-m air temperature, 2-m dewpoint temperature, total precipitation, and mean sea level pressure. Refer to Wang et al. (2015) , Lebeaupin Brossier et al. (2015) , and Madec et al. (2016) for further details. d. Assessment method Performance of abovementioned approaches in computing sensible and latent heat fluxes is evaluated using a correlation coefficient and a

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Sharon E. Nicholson

, which produces its own circulation system and rainfall regime ( Ba and Nicholson 1998 ). Both statistical and dynamical models have been applied to seasonal forecasting in this region, with the statistical models providing greater skill ( Diro et al. 2011b ; van Oldenborgh et al. 2005 ). The statistical models exploit teleconnections between rainfall and other variables. Most relate rainfall to surface parameters, generally sea surface temperatures (SSTs). A notable exception is the forecast model

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P. Irannejad and A. Henderson-Sellers

Schemes (PILPS; Henderson-Sellers et al. 1995 , 1996 ; Luo et al. 2003 ) coordinates the AMIP Diagnostic Subproject 12 (DSP 12) on land surface processes and parameterizations. The AMIP framework permits evaluation of the AGCMs’ simulated surface energy and water budgets under common specifications of radiative forcing and observed ocean and sea ice boundary conditions ( Gates 1992 ; Gates et al. 1999 ). The first phase of the AMIP (AMIP I) involved over 30 modeling groups and nearly as many

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Viviana Maggioni, Patrick C. Meyers, and Monique D. Robinson

-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) research products . Atmos. Res. , 163 , 91 – 101 , doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.12.015 . Lo Conti, F. , Hsu K. L. , Noto L. V. , and Sorooshian S. , 2014 : Evaluation and comparison of satellite precipitation estimates with reference to a local area in the Mediterranean Sea . Atmos. Res. , 138 , 189 – 204 , doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2013.11.011 . Maggioni, V. , Vergara H. J. , Anagnostou E. N. , Gourley J. J. , Hong Y. , and Stampoulis D. , 2013

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Jessica M. Erlingis, Jonathan J. Gourley, and Jeffrey B. Basara

et al. 1997 ), though the height increase during the NAMS is not as large as its South Asian counterpart. Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of greater than 29.5°C across the Gulf of California are required to simulate the NAMS ( Stensrud et al. 1995 ), and Mitchell et al. (2002) showed that 75% of rainfall in New Mexico and Arizona occurred with Gulf of California SSTs greater than 29°C. Some of the most infamous flash floods have occurred along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains: the Big

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Lintao Li, Albertus J. Dolman, and Zongxue Xu

, but for winter (DJF). The black ellipse in (a) indicates the location of the Pamir and the Hindu Kush mountain ranges. Fig . 3. As in Fig. 1 , but for summer (JJA). The annual mean values of depict the synoptic moisture source–sink relationships to the EAM ( Fig. 1d ). The dominant feature is that the northern Indian Ocean, the East and South China Seas, and most parts of China are diagnosed as noticeable moisture source regions. Intuitively, it may be explained by the well-known summer monsoon

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Abel T. Woldemichael, Faisal Hossain, and Roger Pielke Sr.

( Kalnay et al. 1996 ). The surface characteristic datasets were obtained from the Atmospheric, Meteorological, and Environmental Technologies (ATMET) data archive (available at ). These datasets include digital elevation model (DEM) data at 30′ (~1 km) spatial increments, soil moisture at various levels, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), sea surface temperature (SST), and LULC. Spatial comparison of simulated precipitation values in the calibration phase was made by the

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Nityanand Singh and Ashwini Ranade

seasons in Korea were determined for each year and each station, and also climatologically ( Byun and Lee 2002 ). For Peninsular Malaysia, Deni et al. (2008) defined a wet day with rainfall of at least 0.1 mm. A wet (dry) spell is defined as a period of consecutive days of exactly, say x , wet (dry) days immediately preceded and followed by a dry (wet) day. Aviad et al. (2004) studied the variation in the beginning, end, and length of the rainy season along a Mediterranean–arid climate transect

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Alexandre M. Ramos, Ricardo M. Trigo, Margarida L. R. Liberato, and Ricardo Tomé

the Iberian Peninsula ( Cortesi et al. 2013 ). Moreover, it should be noted that summer precipitation is not significant, except in northern mountainous sectors such the Pyrenees, and also close to the Mediterranean coast, where intense downpours can occur in small areas, often associated with mesoscale convective systems. Therefore, the method applied to characterize and rank each extended winter day takes into account the severity of the precipitation anomaly and also its spatial extent. This

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