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Viviana Maggioni, Patrick C. Meyers, and Monique D. Robinson

-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) research products . Atmos. Res. , 163 , 91 – 101 , doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.12.015 . Lo Conti, F. , Hsu K. L. , Noto L. V. , and Sorooshian S. , 2014 : Evaluation and comparison of satellite precipitation estimates with reference to a local area in the Mediterranean Sea . Atmos. Res. , 138 , 189 – 204 , doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2013.11.011 . Maggioni, V. , Vergara H. J. , Anagnostou E. N. , Gourley J. J. , Hong Y. , and Stampoulis D. , 2013

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Jessica M. Erlingis, Jonathan J. Gourley, and Jeffrey B. Basara

et al. 1997 ), though the height increase during the NAMS is not as large as its South Asian counterpart. Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of greater than 29.5°C across the Gulf of California are required to simulate the NAMS ( Stensrud et al. 1995 ), and Mitchell et al. (2002) showed that 75% of rainfall in New Mexico and Arizona occurred with Gulf of California SSTs greater than 29°C. Some of the most infamous flash floods have occurred along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains: the Big

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Lintao Li, Albertus J. Dolman, and Zongxue Xu

, but for winter (DJF). The black ellipse in (a) indicates the location of the Pamir and the Hindu Kush mountain ranges. Fig . 3. As in Fig. 1 , but for summer (JJA). The annual mean values of depict the synoptic moisture source–sink relationships to the EAM ( Fig. 1d ). The dominant feature is that the northern Indian Ocean, the East and South China Seas, and most parts of China are diagnosed as noticeable moisture source regions. Intuitively, it may be explained by the well-known summer monsoon

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Abel T. Woldemichael, Faisal Hossain, and Roger Pielke Sr.

( Kalnay et al. 1996 ). The surface characteristic datasets were obtained from the Atmospheric, Meteorological, and Environmental Technologies (ATMET) data archive (available at ). These datasets include digital elevation model (DEM) data at 30′ (~1 km) spatial increments, soil moisture at various levels, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), sea surface temperature (SST), and LULC. Spatial comparison of simulated precipitation values in the calibration phase was made by the

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Nityanand Singh and Ashwini Ranade

seasons in Korea were determined for each year and each station, and also climatologically ( Byun and Lee 2002 ). For Peninsular Malaysia, Deni et al. (2008) defined a wet day with rainfall of at least 0.1 mm. A wet (dry) spell is defined as a period of consecutive days of exactly, say x , wet (dry) days immediately preceded and followed by a dry (wet) day. Aviad et al. (2004) studied the variation in the beginning, end, and length of the rainy season along a Mediterranean–arid climate transect

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Alexandre M. Ramos, Ricardo M. Trigo, Margarida L. R. Liberato, and Ricardo Tomé

the Iberian Peninsula ( Cortesi et al. 2013 ). Moreover, it should be noted that summer precipitation is not significant, except in northern mountainous sectors such the Pyrenees, and also close to the Mediterranean coast, where intense downpours can occur in small areas, often associated with mesoscale convective systems. Therefore, the method applied to characterize and rank each extended winter day takes into account the severity of the precipitation anomaly and also its spatial extent. This

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Xuan Tong, Zhongwei Yan, Jiangjiang Xia, and Xiao Lou

). Precipitation in North China is also significantly influenced by remote midlatitude circulations via the Silk Road pattern (SRP) and Pacific–Japan pattern, among others ( Lu et al. 2002 ; Wang and He 2015 ; Qu et al. 2017 ). The atmospheric circulation also plays a role in linking the regional precipitation and other remote climate factors such as the polar sea ice and the tropical sea surface temperature anomalies ( Wang et al. 2000 ; Ma 2007 ; Si and Ding 2016 ; Yang et al. 2017 ; Yang and Ma 2017

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J. Roads, M. Kanamitsu, and R. Stewart

coordinated by the GEWEX Hydrometeorology Panel (GHP), which, as shown in Fig. 1 , now includes nine representative world climate regions. The regions over the Americas include the Mackenzie (K; see Stewart et al. 1998 ), Mississippi (M; see Lawford 1999 ), and Amazon (A; see Marengo et al. 2002, manuscript submitted to J. Hydrometeor., hereafter MNS) river basins. In Europe, there is an experiment for the Baltic Sea [BALTEX (B); see Raschke et al. 1998] and four GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment ( GAME

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Paul A. Dirmeyer and Kaye L. Brubaker

Mississippi River basin, Sudradjat et al. (2003) extended the study to interannual variations, and Sudradjat (2002) applied the approach to the Amazon basin. The method has also been applied to examine moisture sources for specific extreme precipitation events over the Mediterranean basin ( Reale et al. 2001 ; Turato et al. 2004 ), and to validate isotopic analyses over Russia ( Kurita et al. 2004 ). Here we extend the analysis of Brubaker et al. (2001) to all land areas of the globe. The datasets

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Cristián Chadwick, Jorge Gironás, Sebastián Vicuña, and Francisco Meza

; King et al. 2015 ; King et al. 2016 ; Lopez et al. 2018 ), sea level ( Carson et al. 2016 ; Lyu et al. 2014 ), current system upwelling ( Brady et al. 2017 ), and different ocean properties ( Keller et al. 2014 ; Henson et al. 2017 ). Finding ToE is relevant as it serves as a marker of human-induced climate change. Recent studies also mention its importance for decision-making, especially when implementing adaptation and mitigation plans ( Nguyen et al. 2018 ; Zhou et al. 2018 ). ToE is most

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