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Anja Hünerbein, Hartwig Deneke, Andreas Macke, Kerstin Ebell, and Ulrich Görsdorf

used to understand the differences between the synthetic and observed satellite data. In the 12- and 8.7- μ m channels, the optical properties are similar to those at 10.8 μ m but the water absorptions are stronger and the emission of ice is changing. The split-window method shows the typical arc shape for the presence of clouds for the synthetic and observed satellite data that agree well ( Fig. 3 ). In the trispectral technique, the difference BT8.7 − BT10.8 has positive values in the presence

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A. Synnefa, A. Dandou, M. Santamouris, M. Tombrou, and N. Soulakellis

: On the impact of urban climate on the energy consumption of buildings. Sol. Energy , 70 , 201 – 216 . Siegel , R. , and J. Howell , 2002 : Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer . 4th ed. Taylor and Francis, 868 pp . Stathopoulou , M. , A. Synnefa , C. Cartalis , M. Santamouris , and H. Akbari , 2007 : A heat island study of Athens using high-resolution satellite imagery and measurements of the optical and thermal properties of commonly used building and paving materials

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D. S. Kimes, P. J. Sellers, and W. W. Newcomb

)ABSTRACT The variations of spectral hemispherical reflectance (albedo) in vegetation canopies were studied as a functionof solar zenith angle, leaf area index, leaf orientation distribution, and leaf and soil optical, properties. A threedimensional radiative transfer model was used to investigate the radiative transfers that give rise to variationsin hemispherical relfectance (p). The results of this model were compared to those derived using an analyticaltwo-stream approximation model which has the

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Daeho Jin, Lazaros Oreopoulos, Dongmin Lee, Jackson Tan, and Nayeong Cho

et al. 2009 ) were added to capture optically thinner clouds and obtained a larger number of meaningful joint cloud–precipitation groups. This pioneering work opened new pathways to group microphysical properties of hydrometeors by regimes with data that can also resolve vertical structures. Combined cloud–precipitation analyses, but without joint clustering, have also been performed within the framework of weather states or CRs, where precipitation variability was a dependent variable sorted for

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J. Vivekanandan, J. Turk, and V. N. Bringi

-layer radiative transfer model utilizinga variable thickness ice layer at various bulk densities,ice water contents, and underlying rain rates is studiedwith regard to variation in TOA Te. It is demonstratedthat the TOA 85-GHz T~ is essentially dependent uponthe ice optical depth ~- to produce steep cooling in T~.In terms of a physical (we mean nonelectromagnetic)property of a precipitating cloud, it has been shownthat the 37-85 GHz T~ difference/XTB can possibly beused to estimate the physcial property of

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Timothy L. Alberta and Stephen K. Cox

FEBRUARY 1990TIMOTHY L. ALBERTA AND STEPHEN K. COX165Cloud Field Reflectance Variations Traceable to Finite Cloud EffectsTIMOTHY L. ALBERTA* AND STEPHEN K. CoxDepartment of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado(Manuscript received 15 April 1989, in final form 13 September 1989)ABSTRACT	Results of experiments conducted using the Cloud Field Optical Simulator (CFOS) to examine the variabilityin reflectance properties of cloud fields with fixed cloud amount but

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S. K. Mukkavilli, A. A. Prasad, R. A. Taylor, A. Troccoli, and M. J. Kay

, R. M. Mitchell , D. D. Cohen , E. Stelcer , and M. D. Keywood , 2010a : Size-resolved mass and chemical properties of dust aerosols from Australia’s Lake Eyre basin . Atmos. Environ. , 44 , 3519 – 3528 , . 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.06.016 Radhi , M. , M. A. Box , G. P. Box , R. M. Mitchell , D. D. Cohen , E. Stelcer , and M. D. Keywood , 2010b : Optical, physical and chemical characteristics of Australian

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Eugene E. Clothiaux, Thomas P. Ackerman, Gerald G. Mace, Kenneth P. Moran, Roger T. Marchand, Mark A. Miller, and Brooks E. Martner

, obtaining accurate measurements is surprisingly difficult. No single ground-based sensor has proven to be capable of doing the job for all of the wide variety of atmospheric cloud situations. The measurement approach in the ARM program relies on both optical and microwave active remote sensors to establish accurate cloud heights, and on a suite of radiometric instruments to assess their radiative impacts. The ARM instruments are densely concentrated at the ARM Cloud and Radiation Test Bed (CART) sites

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J. Murray Mitchell Jr.

A generalized model of the effect of an optically thin atmospheric aerosol on the terrestrial heat budgetis proposed, and applied to the problem of estimating the impact of the aerosol on temperatures near theearth's surface. The distinction between warming and cooling near the surface attributable to the aerosolis found on the basis of this model to depend on whether the ratio of absorption a to backscatter b of incomingsolar radiation by the aerosol is greater or less than the critical ratio

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Meike Kühnlein, Boris Thies, Thomas Nauß, and Jörg Bendix

higher rainfall probability than cloud areas with a low optical thickness and a small effective particle radius. Recently, Thies et al. (2008c) showed the possibility of separating areas of differing precipitation processes and rainfall intensities within rain areas by using cloud properties retrieved with the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Instrument (SEVIRI). The day and night techniques for precipitation process separation and rainfall

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