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Laura D. Riihimaki, Connor Flynn, Allison McComiskey, Dan Lubin, Yann Blanchard, J. Christine Chiu, Graham Feingold, Daniel R. Feldman, Jake J. Gristey, Christian Herrera, Gary Hodges, Evgueni Kassianov, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Alexander Marshak, Joseph J. Michalsky, Peter Pilewskie, Sebastian Schmidt, Ryan C. Scott, Yolanda Shea, Kurtis Thome, Richard Wagener, and Bruce Wielicki

ultimate effect on radiative fluxes from regional to global scales. As climate models are on track to reach unprecedented resolution in the coming decade—3 km globally for the Simple Cloud Resolving E3SM Atmosphere Model (SCREAM) parameterizations within the DOE Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM)—understanding the details of fine-scale processes that drive aerosol and cloud radiative effects over smaller domains and the manifestation of those processes at regional to global scales has come into

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Paul A. Kucera, Elizabeth E. Ebert, F. Joseph Turk, Vincenzo Levizzani, Dalia Kirschbaum, Francisco J. Tapiador, Alexander Loew, and M. Borsche

economic damage and fatalities that affect nearly every country in the world. Despite their broad impacts, characterizing the frequency, severity, and occurrence of such events has been primarily limited to regional or local analyses due to the dearth of rainfall gauges and the spatial scale of existing landslide and flood models. Recent research has sought to use satellite rainfall estimates from TRMM to inform the spatial and temporal distribution of flooding and landslides at the global scale ( Hong

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Hunter M. Jones, E. L. Mecray, S. D. Birkel, K. C. Conlon, P. L. Kinney, V. B. S. Silva, W. Solecki, and T. M. Surgeon Rogers

NIHHIS NORTHEAST DECISION CALENDAR WORKSHOP What : The National Integrated Heat Health Information System (NIHHIS) convened a regional workshop to understand the multidisciplinary user contexts for heat-health information, employing a decision calendar approach to document discipline-specific and time-scale-explicit decisions made to reduce heat-health risk. When : 18 October 2018 Where : Westborough, Massachusetts The National Integrated Heat Health Informa tion System (NIHHIS) Northeast

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Phu Nguyen, Andrea Thorstensen, Soroosh Sorooshian, Kuolin Hsu, Amir Aghakouchak, Hamed Ashouri, Hoang Tran, and Dan Braithwaite

: Nonparametric tests against trend . Econometrica , 13 , 245 – 259 , https://doi.org/10.2307/1907187 . 10.2307/1907187 Mendoza , P. A. , and Coauthors , 2016 : Effects of different regional climate model resolution and forcing scales on projected hydrologic changes . J. Hydrol. , 541 , 1003 – 1019 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.08.010 . 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.08.010 Miao , C. , and Coauthors , 2015 : Evaluation of the PERSIANN-CDR daily rainfall estimates in capturing the behavior

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P. O. Canziani, A. O'Neill, R. Schofield, M. Raphael, G. J. Marshall, and G. Redaelli

A World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Special Workshop titled the “Climatic effects of ozone depletion in the Southern Hemisphere: Assessing the evidence and identifying gaps in the current knowledge” focused on the current understanding of Southern Hemisphere (SH) ozone depletion, in particular high-latitude ozone depletion, with regards to its impacts on hemispheric climate and its role relative to greenhouse gas (GHG)–induced climate changes. The 2010 United Nations Environment Programme

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Paquita Zuidema, Jens Redemann, James Haywood, Robert Wood, Stuart Piketh, Martin Hipondoka, and Paola Formenti

aerosol nucleating the clouds also alter the cloud microphysics and the clouds' likelihood of producing rain. Other effects exist, for example, from the moisture associated with the aerosol layer, while further effects may still remain to be discovered. At a larger scale, the change in atmospheric warming from the smoke affects the neighboring precipitation distribution. The smoke’s influence on the surface energy budget ultimately affects the equatorial climate and its variability through the trade

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Florian Lemarié, Hans Burchard, Laurent Debreu, Knut Klingbeil, and Jacques Sainte-Marie

FIRST COMMODORE WORKSHOP: COMMUNITY FOR THE NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE GLOBAL, REGIONAL, AND COASTAL OCEAN What : A total of 47 participants from 9 countries representing 15 different oceanic numerical models met to review our current understanding of future challenges in the design of oceanic dynamical cores. When : 17–19 September 2018 Where : Paris, France Oceanic numerical models are used to understand and predict a wide range of processes from global paleoclimate scales to short

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Mathias W. Rotach, Georg Wohlfahrt, Armin Hansel, Matthias Reif, Johannes Wagner, and Alexander Gohm

The incorporation of mesoscale circulations would increase the accuracy of global (or regional) atmospheric carbon budget models—A finding that calls for more much-needed research. Anthropogenic activities, such as combustion of fossil fuels plus cement production and land use changes, result in large CO 2 emissions into Earth's atmosphere. The corresponding CO 2 emission values for the year 2011 are 9.5 ± 0.5 and 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr −1 , respectively ( Le Quéré et al. 2013 ). About half of the

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Jennifer A. Francis

, is challenging. As AA intensifies, however, evidence of its impacts is becoming clearer, particularly the regional and seasonal variations, and its dependence on the background state ( Overland et al. 2016 ; Sung et al. 2016 ; Nakamura et al. 2016b ). The abrupt flip of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) index from negative to positive in late 2013, coinciding with substantial ice loss in the Arctic’s Pacific sector (Chukchi–Beaufort Seas), provides an example of this relationship

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Weiqing Han, Jérôme Vialard, Michael J. McPhaden, Tong Lee, Yukio Masumoto, Ming Feng, and Will P.M. de Ruijter

providing some regional feedback. The caveat for this experiment was that the SSTAs were prescribed only in the midlatitudes of the southern Indian Ocean. SSTAs have smaller amplitudes in the equatorial and northern Indian Ocean basins, but their effects on convection can be large there because they are superimposed on high mean SSTs ( Fig. 2 ). Given the nonlinear dependence of convection on SST, tropical variability can affect the extratropics via atmospheric teleconnections, an issue that was not

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