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Benjamin J. Hatchett, Susan Burak, Jonathan J. Rutz, Nina S. Oakley, Edward H. Bair, and Michael L. Kaplan

by narrow plumes of concentrated water vapor flux called atmospheric rivers (ARs; Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Ralph et al. 2004 ). ARs originate as a combination of local convergence along the warm conveyor belt and cold frontal region of the extratropical cyclone and as direct poleward transport of tropical moisture ( Bao et al. 2006 ). ARs are often identified via satellite as elongated regions of enhanced column-integrated water vapor (IWV; Fig. 1a ) and have important roles in wUS

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Guoxiang Yang, Laura C. Bowling, Keith A. Cherkauer, Bryan C. Pijanowski, and Dev Niyogi

) macroscale hydrologic model to make it more suitable for urbanized watersheds, resulting in the VIC urban model, as discussed in section 3 . We hypothesize that the streamflow regime is modified by increasing urban intensity, and the VIC urban model can capture these changes in the White River basin as well as the UHI pattern. To test these hypotheses, in section 4 USGS daily streamflow data from 16 small watersheds with different degrees of urbanization in the White River, Indiana (IN), were analyzed

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Imme Benedict, Chiel C. van Heerwaarden, Ruud J. van der Ent, Albrecht H. Weerts, and Wilco Hazeleger

significance of source regions and the transport of moisture from these toward continental areas in the future?” Here, we focus on the atmospheric water budget and the moisture sources of the Mississippi River basin (MRB) and how these are affected by climate change. The Mississippi River basin is the fourth-largest river basin in the world, and it contains one of the world’s most productive agricultural regions (the Corn Belt). In addition, it is an important source of water to millions of people, as well

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Kurt C. Solander, Katrina E. Bennett, Sean W. Fleming, David S. Gutzler, Emily M. Hopkins, and Richard S. Middleton

natural flow of rivers by a factor of 2.5 in the Colorado River basin (CRB; Nilsson et al. 2005 ; Sabo et al. 2010 ). The extent of regulation is so great for CRB water supplies—which are shared among seven U.S. states and Mexico—that the Colorado River no longer reaches its natural terminus in the Gulf of California, except under mandate to mimic historical conditions for environmental benefits ( Witze 2014 ). The high rate of population growth coupled with projected climate-induced changes to the

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Tracy E. Twine, Christopher J. Kucharik, and Jonathan A. Foley

after vegetation cover was decreased either through complete removal of vegetation or species replacement. Several modeling studies have related land cover change to potential changes in regional climate ( Dickinson and Henderson-Sellers 1988 ; Chase et al. 1996 ; Copeland et al. 1996 ; Bonan 1997 , 1999 ; Pielke et al. 1999 ), but only a few have examined the hydrologic response of large river basins to land cover change ( Vorosmarty et al. 1989 ; Vorosmarty and Moore 1991 ; Costa and Foley

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Hatim O. Sharif, W. Crow, N. L. Miller, and E. F. Wood

complex physically based simulations is that they can be used to evaluate and validate much simpler modeling approaches. In this study, long-term observational land surface forcings and derived solar radiation were used to force high-resolution land surface model simulations over the Arkansas–Red River (AR) basin in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region of the United States. The most unique aspect of these simulations is the fine space and time resolutions (1 km 2 and hourly) within the model

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John Roads and Alan Betts

assess the ability of forecast models to estimate the energy and hydrological balances for the Mississippi River basin, using observations of precipitation and runoff as evaluation data. Studies of the GCIP water and energy budgets have been carried out previously by Betts et al. (1998c , 1999) using the ECMWF reanalysis (hereinafter referred to as ERA) and by Roads et al. (1999) using the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis (hereinafter referred to as NRA). Here these disparate efforts are combined and the

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Abayomi A. Abatan, William J. Gutowski Jr., Caspar M. Ammann, Laurna Kaatz, Barbara G. Brown, Lawrence Buja, Randy Bullock, Tressa Fowler, Eric Gilleland, and John Halley Gotway

1. Introduction The southwestern United States, including the upper Colorado River basin (UCRB), is highly vulnerable to regional climatic extremes, such as droughts and pluvials, because of the region’s geographic location and climatological characteristics ( Laird et al. 1996 ; Hidalgo 2004 ). Multiyear droughts and pluvials have severe consequences for the agricultural sector and water resources management, such as for Denver Water, a major water utility in the region. Multiyear to

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Oldrich Rakovec, Rohini Kumar, Juliane Mai, Matthias Cuntz, Stephan Thober, Matthias Zink, Sabine Attinger, David Schäfer, Martin Schrön, and Luis Samaniego

1. Introduction Since the pioneering work of Crawford and Linsley (1966) , the efficiency of computational hydrologic models has been evaluated against streamflow observations that are available at determined locations within a river basin ( Dawdy and Lichty 1968 ; Sorooshian and Dracup 1980 ; Duan et al. 1992 ; Bergström 1995 ; Seibert 2000 ; Hundecha and Bárdossy 2004 ; Troy et al. 2008 ; Yilmaz et al. 2008 ; Samaniego et al. 2010 ; Kumar et al. 2013a ). This kind of continuous in

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Zhe Li, Dawen Yang, Bing Gao, Yang Jiao, Yang Hong, and Tao Xu

around the world (e.g., Su et al. 2008 ; Li et al. 2009 ; Bitew and Gebremichael 2011 ; Gebregiorgis et al. 2012 ; Yong et al. 2012 ), indicating that there is an increasing potential to use these products in hydrological modeling with continuing upgrades of retrieval algorithms ( Su et al. 2008 ; Yong et al. 2012 ). In the future, it is expected that the recently launched Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission will further improve flood monitoring in medium-to-large river basins

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