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Michael D. Warner, Clifford F. Mass, and Eric P. Salathé Jr.

1. Introduction The U.S. West Coast receives the majority of its precipitation during the winter months ( Neiman et al. 2008b ), with the most extreme events associated with atmospheric rivers (ARs; Ralph et al. 2005 , 2006 ; Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Warner et al. 2012 ). ARs are narrow regions of large water vapor transport that extend from the tropics or subtropics into the extratropics ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ). ARs are responsible for over 90% of the global meridional water vapor transport

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Rajesh R. Shrestha, Markus A. Schnorbus, and Alex J. Cannon

1. Introduction Predictability of seasonal streamflow response is crucial for assessing water availability in river basins and for managing extremes such as floods and drought. A popular method for seasonal streamflow prediction is to use historical climate traces with an appropriate model initialization at the time of forecast, usually referred to as the ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP; Franz et al. 2003 ; Shi et al. 2008 ; Shukla and Lettenmaier 2011 ). An improvement on the ESP

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Benjamin J. Hatchett, Susan Burak, Jonathan J. Rutz, Nina S. Oakley, Edward H. Bair, and Michael L. Kaplan

by narrow plumes of concentrated water vapor flux called atmospheric rivers (ARs; Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Ralph et al. 2004 ). ARs originate as a combination of local convergence along the warm conveyor belt and cold frontal region of the extratropical cyclone and as direct poleward transport of tropical moisture ( Bao et al. 2006 ). ARs are often identified via satellite as elongated regions of enhanced column-integrated water vapor (IWV; Fig. 1a ) and have important roles in wUS

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Safat Sikder, Xiaodong Chen, Faisal Hossain, Jason B. Roberts, Franklin Robertson, C. K. Shum, and Francis J. Turk

is vulnerable to uncoordinated human activity in the upstream (higher elevation) regions, such as extraction, diversion, and dam impoundment of river waters. Some pertinent examples are the Farakka Barrage (on the Ganges River; Mirza 1998 ), the Gozaldoba Barrage (on the Teesta River, a tributary of the Brahmaputra; Nishat and Faisal 2000 ), the now-shelved Tipaimukh Dam on the Meghna River in India ( Sinha 1995 ), and the much-discussed Indian River Linking Project (IRLP; Misra et al. 2007

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Imme Benedict, Chiel C. van Heerwaarden, Ruud J. van der Ent, Albrecht H. Weerts, and Wilco Hazeleger

significance of source regions and the transport of moisture from these toward continental areas in the future?” Here, we focus on the atmospheric water budget and the moisture sources of the Mississippi River basin (MRB) and how these are affected by climate change. The Mississippi River basin is the fourth-largest river basin in the world, and it contains one of the world’s most productive agricultural regions (the Corn Belt). In addition, it is an important source of water to millions of people, as well

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Kurt C. Solander, Katrina E. Bennett, Sean W. Fleming, David S. Gutzler, Emily M. Hopkins, and Richard S. Middleton

natural flow of rivers by a factor of 2.5 in the Colorado River basin (CRB; Nilsson et al. 2005 ; Sabo et al. 2010 ). The extent of regulation is so great for CRB water supplies—which are shared among seven U.S. states and Mexico—that the Colorado River no longer reaches its natural terminus in the Gulf of California, except under mandate to mimic historical conditions for environmental benefits ( Witze 2014 ). The high rate of population growth coupled with projected climate-induced changes to the

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Wahid Palash, Yudan Jiang, Ali S. Akanda, David L. Small, Amin Nozari, and Shafiqul Islam

1. Introduction a. Background Flooding poses a severe constraint on socioeconomic development in flood-prone areas across the world. On average, river flooding affects 21 million people and $96 billion in gross domestic product (GDP) worldwide each year, with developing countries seeing more of their GDPs exposed to flood risks than the developed world ( WRI 2015 ). South Asia is identified as one of the hardest-hit areas, with upward of 9.5 million people affected by annual floods. India and

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Tracy E. Twine, Christopher J. Kucharik, and Jonathan A. Foley

after vegetation cover was decreased either through complete removal of vegetation or species replacement. Several modeling studies have related land cover change to potential changes in regional climate ( Dickinson and Henderson-Sellers 1988 ; Chase et al. 1996 ; Copeland et al. 1996 ; Bonan 1997 , 1999 ; Pielke et al. 1999 ), but only a few have examined the hydrologic response of large river basins to land cover change ( Vorosmarty et al. 1989 ; Vorosmarty and Moore 1991 ; Costa and Foley

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Guoxiang Yang, Laura C. Bowling, Keith A. Cherkauer, Bryan C. Pijanowski, and Dev Niyogi

) macroscale hydrologic model to make it more suitable for urbanized watersheds, resulting in the VIC urban model, as discussed in section 3 . We hypothesize that the streamflow regime is modified by increasing urban intensity, and the VIC urban model can capture these changes in the White River basin as well as the UHI pattern. To test these hypotheses, in section 4 USGS daily streamflow data from 16 small watersheds with different degrees of urbanization in the White River, Indiana (IN), were analyzed

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Hatim O. Sharif, W. Crow, N. L. Miller, and E. F. Wood

complex physically based simulations is that they can be used to evaluate and validate much simpler modeling approaches. In this study, long-term observational land surface forcings and derived solar radiation were used to force high-resolution land surface model simulations over the Arkansas–Red River (AR) basin in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region of the United States. The most unique aspect of these simulations is the fine space and time resolutions (1 km 2 and hourly) within the model

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