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Kathryn L. Gunn, Lisa M. Beal, Shane Elipot, K. McMonigal, and Adam Houk

why water masses vary. Here, we address this gap in our knowledge by analyzing the spatiotemporal variability of salinity—a conservative tracer of water masses—across the current. Variability of water masses in the Agulhas Current has been previously inferred using infrequent hydrographic transects. Four hydrographic transects, collected over a period of three years, revealed changes in temperature and salinity of 1°C and 0.25 psu at shallow and intermediate depths (Fig. 4 of Leber and Beal 2015

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Gunnar I. Roden

?56 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUM-9The Depth Variability of Meridional Gradients of Temperature, Salinity and Sound Velocity in the Western North PacificI GUNNAR I. RODENDepartment of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle 98195(Manuscript received 21 August 1978, in final form 12 January 1979)ABSTRACT In the western North Pacific, meridional

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Bo Qiu, Shuiming Chen, and Peter Hacker

:// .) Twenty Apex proiling floats were deployed in the KE recirculation gyre in May–June 2004, and another set of 28 floats were deployed in May–June 2005. With a repeat cycle of 5 days, an unprecedented amount of high-vertical-resolution temperature–salinity ( T – S ) profiles has been collected from the KE in the past two years. By combining the profiling T – S data with the mesoscale-resolving sea surface height (SSH) data from multiple satellite altimetry missions, we seek to quantitatively evaluate

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Gregory R. Foltz, Claudia Schmid, and Rick Lumpkin

1. Introduction The role of sea surface salinity (SSS) in tropical mixed layer dynamics and its value for diagnosing changes in Earth’s hydrological cycle have received increasing attention in recent years. Observations show positive trends of SSS in the high-salinity subtropics and decreasing trends in the tropics during the past 50 yr ( Curry et al. 2003 ; Cravatte et al. 2009 ; Durack et al. 2012 ), consistent with observed changes in precipitation ( Wentz et al. 2007 ; Zhou et al. 2011

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Etienne Pauthenet, Fabien Roquet, Gurvan Madec, Jean-Baptiste Sallée, and David Nerini

1. Introduction The global ocean waters are traditionally divided into distinct water masses defined by their origin, their physicochemical properties (in particular their temperature and salinity), and their vertical position. Tracking the position and properties of water masses provides a powerful way for monitoring the ocean circulation and climate variability. The ocean, seen as a network of numerous water masses that are formed, transformed, mixed, and subducted, is however complex to

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D. Stammer, S. Park, A. Köhl, R. Lukas, and F. Santiago-Mandujano

1. Introduction Ocean time series stations are among the few places in the world where observations of variables such as velocity, temperature, and salinity exist over many years. Those datasets are extremely valuable for describing changes in the ocean near the surface and especially at depth, observations that otherwise are difficult to obtain. Causes for those changes are manifold and include processes affecting water-mass formation, usually occurring in remote regions. As an example

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A. V. Fedorov, R. C. Pacanowski, S. G. Philander, and G. Boccaletti

that the maintenance of the shallow thermocline depends mainly on the deep thermohaline circulation, which involves the sinking of cold, saline surface waters in certain high-latitude regions [for a review of various approaches see Veronis (1969) ]. Robinson and Stommel (1959) assumed that the tropical thermocline remains shallow despite the downward diffusion of heat because that diffusion is countered by the upward motion of cold water from below the thermocline. Subsequently, estimates of the

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Michel A. J. de Nijs, Johan C. Winterwerp, and Julie D. Pietrzak

1. Introduction Suspended particulate matter (SPM)-laden river waters are conveyed through estuaries toward shelf seas. A typical feature of estuaries is the fresh–saltwater mixing region, an area between fresh and saline waters, which is characterized by high SPM concentrations due to local trapping mechanisms. This along-channel maximum SPM concentration is referred to as the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM). In some estuarine systems, the ETM is considered an important larval fish nursery

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Sebastian H. Mernild, David M. Holland, Denise Holland, Aqqalu Rosing-Asvid, Jacob C. Yde, Glen E. Liston, and Konrad Steffen

Broeke et al. 2009 ; Hanna et al. 2009 , 2013a ). At Jakobshavn Isbrae, iceberg calving is thought to be responsible for most of the freshwater flux at the terminus ( Gladish et al. 2015 ), while runoff only constitutes a minor proportion. Intense calving in the narrow fjord creates the dense surface cover know as ice mélange, and melting of the icebergs (and probably seasonal melting of sea ice cover during late spring and early summer) lowers the salinity of the nearby water of the upper layers

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Curtis C. Ebbesmeyer and Bruce A. Taft

VOLUME9 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY NOVEMBER 1979Variability of Potential Energy, Dynamic Height and Salinity in the Main Pycnocline of the Western North Atlantic~ CURTIS C. EBBESMEYER2Evans-Hamilton, lnc., Seattle, WA 98ll5 BRUCE A. TAFTDepartment of Oceanography and Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington WB-10, Seattle 98195(Manuscript received

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