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Dyre O. Dammann, Uma S. Bhatt, Peter L. Langen, Jeremy R. Krieger, and Xiangdong Zhang

1. Introduction The recent dramatic decline of Arctic Ocean sea ice area ( Comiso and Nishio 2008 ), extent ( Stroeve et al. 2008 ), and thickness ( Rothrock et al. 2008 ; Kwok and Rothrock 2009 ) has reinvigorated research on the role of sea ice in climate variability and change. While sea ice conditions are primarily a response to atmospheric (e.g., Deser et al. 2000 ) and oceanic forcing (e.g., Polyakov et al. 2012 ), global climate model (GCM) studies using fixed sea ice concentration

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Ian Baxter, Qinghua Ding, Axel Schweiger, Michelle L’Heureux, Stephen Baxter, Tao Wang, Qin Zhang, Kirstin Harnos, Bradley Markle, Daniel Topal, and Jian Lu

1. Introduction Earth has warmed significantly over the past 40 years, and the fastest rate of warming has occurred in and around the Arctic ( Serreze and Barry 2011 ; Bintanja et al. 2011 ; Vaughan et al. 2013 ; Fyfe et al. 2013 ; Cohen et al. 2014 ; Perlwitz et al. 2015 ; Screen and Francis 2016 ). The warming of northern high latitudes at a rate of almost twice the global average, known as Arctic amplification, is associated with sea ice loss, glacier retreat, permafrost degradation

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Masayo Ogi, Bunmei Taguchi, Meiji Honda, David G. Barber, and Søren Rysgaard

1. Introduction Changes in the Arctic sea-ice extent have been dramatic; in particular, the September Arctic sea-ice extent has been rapidly decreasing and its year-to-year variations of sea-ice concentration over the marginal seas to the northern coast of Alaska and Siberia have declined since 1979. The September sea-ice concentrations over the marginal seas not only exhibit a decreasing trend but also are correlated with the variations in September sea-ice extent over the entire Arctic Ocean

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Lejiang Yu, Shiyuan Zhong, Mingyu Zhou, Bo Sun, and Donald H. Lenschow

1. Introduction Since the 1970s, Antarctic sea ice extent has displayed an overall increasing trend ( Comiso and Nishio 2008 ; Parkinson and Cavalieri 2012 ; Holland 2014 ; Hobbs et al. 2016 ). Unlike the Arctic where sea ice has been on a downward trend consistently across the region, the Antarctic sea ice trends show regional differences, with an upward trend in the Weddell Sea, southern Pacific Ocean, and Ross Sea and downward trend in a portion of the southern Indian Ocean, Amundsen Sea

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John Turner, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, Tony Phillips, Gareth J. Marshall, and J. Scott Hosking

1. Introduction Since the late 1970s sea ice extent (SIE) around the Antarctic continent has increased at a statistically significant rate ( Comiso and Nishio 2008 ; Turner et al. 2009 ; Zwally et al. 2002 ). This is in marked contrast to the ice conditions over the Arctic Ocean, where there has been a sharp decline over the same period ( Stroeve et al. 2007 ). The reasons for the overall increase in Antarctic SIE over the last 30 years are still under debate. Turner et al. (2009) carried

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Dániel Topál, Qinghua Ding, Jonathan Mitchell, Ian Baxter, Mátyás Herein, Tímea Haszpra, Rui Luo, and Qingquan Li

1. Introduction The recent dramatic reduction in summer [June–August (JJA)] Arctic sea ice cover has become an iconic symbol of climate change ( Vaughan et al. 2013 ). The scientific community has reached broad consensus that the observed sea ice decline is mostly attributable to anthropogenic forcing and its associated positive feedbacks, collectively known as Arctic amplification ( Deser et al. 2010 ; Cohen et al. 2014 ; Screen and Simmonds 2010 ; Simmonds 2015 ; Notz and Stroeve 2016

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Courtenay Strong, Gudrun Magnusdottir, and Hal Stern

Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), and a weak but nonnegligible influence of tropical and extratropical SST on the NAO has been found ( Marshall et al. 2001 ; Kushnir et al. 2002 ; Czaja et al. 2003 ; Mosedale et al. 2006 ). There are also important interactions between the NAO and winter sea ice on synoptic to decadal time scales. As the leading mode of variability, the NAO might be expected to exert an influence on the spatial distribution of winter sea ice via wind-driven anomalies of sea

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Zili Shen, Anmin Duan, Dongliang Li, and Jinxiao Li

1. Introduction Sea ice plays a key role in the global climate system. It can change the surface albedo and prevent heat exchange between the ocean and atmosphere, acting as a barrier between them ( Screen and Simmonds 2010 ; Screen and Blackport 2019 ; Serreze and Barry 2011 ; Stroeve et al. 2012a ). As assessed from satellite data, Arctic sea ice has been declining in all months, and the largest declining trend occurs in September. The years 2012 and 2020 marked record lows for September

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Lei Wang, Xiaojun Yuan, Mingfang Ting, and Cuihua Li

1. Introduction Recent Arctic sea ice changes have important societal and economical impacts: the accelerated melting of Arctic sea ice in summer (e.g., Parkinson and Cavalieri 2008 ; Simmonds 2015 ) provides new fishery opportunities and increases the feasibility of trans-Arctic shipping (e.g., Eicken 2013 ), yet it may also lead to adverse effects on the Arctic ecosystem, weather, and climate (e.g., Serreze et al. 2007 ; Yang et al. 2015, submitted to J. Climate ). Past studies have been

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Qigang Wu and Xiangdong Zhang

sea surface temperature (SST) in the extratropics have a profound effect on the southern annular mode [SAM, also called Antarctic Oscillation (AAO); Thompson and Wallace 1998 ] ( Watterson 2001 ; Marshall and Connolley 2006 ; Sen Gupta and England 2007 ). Sea ice is also an active component in the climate system. Not only is it sensitive to dynamic and thermodynamic forcings from overlying atmosphere and underlying ocean, it also modulates atmospheric and oceanic circulations through altered

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