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William R. Burrows, Colin Price, and Laurence J. Wilson

probability forecasts. J. Climate , 16 , 4145 – 4150 . 10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<4145:OTRSOP>2.0.CO;2 Mazany, R. A. , Businger S. , Gutman S. I. , and Roeder W. , 2002 : A lightning prediction index that utilizes GPS integrated precipitable water vapor. Wea. Forecasting , 17 , 1034 – 1047 . 10.1175/1520-0434(2002)017<1034:ALPITU>2.0.CO;2 Orville, R. E. , Huffines G. R. , Burrows W. R. , Holle R. L. , and Cummins K. L. , 2002 : The North American Lightning Detection Network

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John D. McMillen and W. James Steenburgh

over the southern shore of the GSL ( Fig. 7b ). However, cloud ice is the dominant cloud hydrometeor at temperatures near or below −15 ° C. The dominance of cloud ice at temperatures below −15 ° C is consistent with the GODD saturation adjustment technique, which allows cloud ice to form at temperatures <−15 ° C and decreases the amount of condensation of cloud water from vapor from −15 ° to −20 ° C, below which condensation of cloud water cannot occur ( Tao et al. 2003 ). The overlapping

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Yuxuan Yang, Lifeng Zhang, Bin Zhang, Wei You, Mingyang Zhang, and Binpeng Xie

above, only the schemes of the ensemble samples are adjusted, but the schemes of the forecast stage remain the same for all the tests. Therefore, the differences in the precipitation among the tests are not related to the forecast stage but are related to the differences in the analysis fields. Figure 7 shows the changes in wind field and water vapor mixing ratio at 850 hPa relative to the CNTL experiment at 1900 UTC 8 December 2015 for each sensitivity test. It is clear that 16 tests have

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Kay Sušelj, Timothy F. Hogan, and João Teixeira

in the i th updraft. Variable φ represents potential temperature θ , water vapor mixing ratio q υ , or zonal u and meridional υ wind speed components. Variable z is the height. The updraft properties are calculated with the mass-flux model described in section 2c . In this study, ozone, cloud liquid water, and cloud ice water are not included in the mass-flux scheme. The EDMF parameterization used in this work closely follows the one from Sušelj et al. (2013) with the following key

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Steven E. Koch, Randolph Ware, Hongli Jiang, and Yuanfu Xie

in the central United States is often capped by a strong inversion, allowing the buildup with diurnal heating of substantial convective available potential energy (CAPE). Once the cap is broken, an explosive situation is created, and the ensuing thunderstorms may quickly become severe (thus the need for high temporal resolution). Strong horizontal gradients in water vapor (>1 g kg −1 km −1 ) may exist across the oft-present dryline over very small distances ( Ziegler et al. 1995 ; Buban et al

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Ahreum Lee, Byung-Ju Sohn, Ed Pavelin, Yoonjae Kim, Hyun-Suk Kang, Roger Saunders, and Young-Chan Noh

the number of used measurements (optimum minus MR method). Latitudinal regions of (a),(b) 90°–30°N, (c),(d) 30°N–30°S, and (e),(f) 30°N–90°S. Black arrows in (e) and (f) represent IASI channels in CO 2 , window, and water vapor absorption bands. The mean difference between observed and background radiance ( O − B ) is calculated for each of 182 IASI channels, and results are given for the MR method and optimum parameters in Fig. 8 . It is shown that O − B means in three regions are nearly

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Ian Morrison and Steven Businger

or all of the following: temperature, dewpoint temperature, wind direction, wind speed, and pressure. In addition, long-line fishing boat records that include ship position, wind direction, and wind speed for the Hawaiian waters were obtained from archives at the National Marine Fisheries Service Laboratory in Honolulu and used to further improve the accuracy of the sea level pressure analyses. Visible, infrared, and water vapor images from GOES-9 are available every hour for most of the

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James J. Simpson, Jared S. Berg, Gary L. Hufford, Craig Bauer, David Pieri, and René Servranckx

. 1 ). Its low pressure center varied from 969 (0000 UTC 20 February 2001) to 1006 hPa. Winds south of the eastern Aleutians/Alaska Peninsula were dominated by this extratropical storm. There are no radiosonde data to compute the total precipitable water vapor for the extratropical storm, but GOES-10 sounder data at 0600 UTC 20 February 2001 were examined. This 19-channel instrument measures atmospheric moisture profiles. Errors are within 15% of radiosonde data for the same site (D. G. Gray

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Gary Ellrod

stereoscopic imagery (Hasler et al. 1982), obtained from simultaneous imaging by two satellites at different viewing angles, such as GOES-East and GOES-West. It is believed that accurate growth Fates of convective' clouds can be obtained from stereo im agery (Mack et al. 1982), since the cloud top heights are determined from geometry and not radiometry. This capability is not expected to be operationally available in the near future, though. Imagery from the VAS water vapor channels is often useful

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Dennis Chesters, Anthony Mostek, and Dennis A. Keyser

days that contain a wide variety of preconvectiveand convective conditions. Since each sounding image requires only 5 min to calculate with an automatedregression algorithm on a minicomputer, it should be possible to process VAS data operationally for real-timeobjective analysis of potential convective instabilities.1. Introduction Operational datasets have significant gaps that limittheir usefulness for mesoscale forecasting. For instance,two-thirds of the water vapor variance in

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