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Jeremy Chardon, Benoit Hingray, Anne-Catherine Favre, Philemon Autin, Joël Gailhard, Isabella Zin, and Charles Obled

meteorological variables (called the predictands). A large number of SDMs have been proposed over the last two decades [see Maraun et al. (2010) for a review]. They are widely used to generate weather scenarios for past or future climates from outputs of climate models (e.g., Wilby et al. 1999 ; Hanssen-Bauer et al. 2005 ; Boé et al. 2007 ; Lafaysse et al. 2014 ). They can also be used to reconstruct weather scenarios from atmospheric reanalysis data [specific events as in Auffray et al. (2011) or

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Maria K. Flatau, Piotr J. Flatau, and Daniel Rudnick

1. Introduction This paper discusses double monsoon onsets that are related to extremely harsh conditions in India: dry and hot weather ( Halpert et al. 1996 ) just before the real monsoon begins. There is fairly little known about multiple onset climatology, synoptics, or the relationship with the real onset and the mean monsoon circulation. The term “double” or “multiple” onset was apparently first used by Fieux and Stommel (1977) . They studied different types of onset of the southwest

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Michel Legrand, Michel Desbois, and Kwami Vovor

.0 319.5 25.5(V < 10 km) (12) (10)Haze bias - 1.4 2.4 3.8moderate, and that more intense events would haveled to larger deviations. These results can be explained as a consequence ofthe modification of the ground radiative fluxes by dust(see Fouquart et al., 1987). Thus, the surface energybalance is modified, as is also the resulting groundtdmperature. During the day, the main effect of a hazyatmosphere is to reduce

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Lixin Lu, Roger A. Pielke Sr., Glen E. Liston, William J. Parton, Dennis Ojima, and Melannie Hartman

mesoscale and global-scale atmospheric models to study the potential effects of land surface processes on weather and climate. These land surface models, which are referred to as Simple Vegetation–Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (SVATS) include the Biosphere–Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) of Dickinson et al. (1986 , 1993) , the Simple Biosphere Scheme of Sellers et al. (1986) , the Simple SiB ( Xue et al. 1991 ), the Bare Essentials of Surface Transfer scheme ( Pitman 1991 ), the Interaction Soil

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Kristoffer Rypdal, Martin Rypdal, and Hege-Beate Fredriksen

formulated on a plane disk, where it takes the form Here t is time, are the two spatial coordinates, is the surface temperature field, and is a relaxation time constant that is proportional to the effective heat capacity per unit area of the surface and inversely proportional to the effective emissivity of outgoing longwave radiation. Also, represents the horizontal turbulent energy flux into a vertical column of unit area due to atmospheric weather systems, and the standard choice is to model

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William D. Collins, Philip J. Rasch, Byron A. Boville, James J. Hack, James R. McCaa, David L. Williamson, Bruce P. Briegleb, Cecilia M. Bitz, Shian-Jiann Lin, and Minghua Zhang

aspects of the atmospheric simulation and improvements in the simulation fidelity are discussed in the overview of CCSM3 by Collins et al. (2006a) . It is important to note that some of the changes in the climate simulation are related to the modifications to the land surface model. The changes related to improvements in CLM are discussed by Bonan et al. (2002) . The new formulations of physics and dynamics are outlined in section 2 . A more complete technical description of the physical basis and

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Sapna Rana, James Renwick, James McGregor, and Ankita Singh

tropical, and eastern extratropical Pacific in combination with positive SST anomalies in the warm tropical and extratropical western Pacific Ocean ( Barlow et al. 2002 ; Hoerling and Kumar 2003 ; Hoell et al. 2015a ). The physical mechanism connecting the western Pacific convection and SST anomalies with CSWA precipitation is through modification of the regional circulation by means of exciting baroclinic ( Barlow et al. 2002 , 2005 ; Hoell et al. 2012 ) and barotropic ( Hoell et al. 2013

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Lisi Pei, Nathan Moore, Shiyuan Zhong, Anthony D. Kendall, Zhiqiu Gao, and David W. Hyndman

period was selected because irrigation water applications greatly exceeded or were comparable to precipitation in drought-stricken regions, providing a strong signal to examine irrigation-induced land–atmosphere interactions. Sections 2 and 3 of this paper introduce modifications in the Noah-Mosaic land surface module of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model based on satellite-derived irrigated areas and a realistic dynamic irrigation approach. Validation of the simulated irrigation

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K. A. Maasch, R. J. Oglesby, and A. Fournier

the development of the complex computer models used for nearly all climate and weather prediction studies today ( Phillips 1956 ). During these early days of his career, Saltzman was also a pioneer in the use of computers in the geosciences as well as in the use of spectral analysis in the study of atmospheric phenomena. He was the first to rigorously use atmospheric energetics as a key tool in understanding how the atmosphere works. His methods for doing this are still widely used today. In 1961

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Evan Weller, Kay Shelton, Michael J. Reeder, and Christian Jakob

1. Introduction Although rainfall is intermittent in both time and space, its timing and location are intimately tied to vertical motion, and the internal circulation of weather systems commonly provides this vertical motion ( Birch et al. 2014a ; Bony et al. 2015 ). For this reason, variations in the frequency, structure, or intensity of weather systems exert a strong control on the variability of rainfall. Moreover, the convergence of mass in the low-level boundary layer plays an important

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