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Nikki C. Privé and R. Alan Plumb

. Chou , C. , J. D. Neelin , and H. Su , 2001 : Ocean-atmosphere-land feedbacks in an idealized monsoon. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 127 , 1869 – 1891 . Cook , K. H. , and A. Gnanadesikan , 1991 : Effects of saturated and dry land surfaces on the tropical circulation and precipitation in a general circulation model. J. Climate , 4 , 873 – 889 . Dirmeyer , P. A. , 1998 : Land-sea geometry and its effect on monsoon circulations. J. Geophys. Res. , 103 , 11555 – 11572

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Chiel C. van Heerwaarden and Jordi Vilà Guerau de Arellano

1. Introduction Convective cloud formation over land is a complex phenomenon caused by the strong interaction between the land surface and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL; Freedman et al. 2001 ; Kang et al. 2007 ). Previous studies (e.g., Ek and Mahrt 1994 ; Ek and Holtslag 2004 ) described the underlying physics of these interactions over homogeneous land surfaces. However, it has been suggested (e.g., Crook 1996 ; Pielke 2001 ; Kang et al. 2007 ) that the timing and location of

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Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Grant W. Branstator, and David D. Houghton

and observed distributions of precipitation (cm day-~). Amounts greater than 0.5 cm day-~ are shaded.regular seasonal cycle of solar forcing is transformedinto a complicated, nonlinear interaction of the atmosphere and surface. This interaction allows forasymmetric seasonal variations and the possibilityof interannual variability without any change in theexternal forcing. The rates of atmospheric heating due to solarshortwave radiative heating, terrestrial longwave radiative cooling

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Richard E. Young, Richard L. Walterscheid, Gerald Schubert, Leonhard Pfister, Howard Houben, and Duane L. Bindschadler

described in Young et al. (1987). Twoexceptions are that the surface static stability used herecorresponds to a small subadiabatic lapse rate of 0.2K/km instead of zero, and the surface winds are chosenas described later. For the most part the profiles (Fig.2) are based on both Pioneer Venus observations andthose obtained by the V EGA-2 lander as it descendedthrough the atmosphere. The reason for choosing aslightly stable atmosphere adjacent to the surface wasto avoid possible numerical difficulties

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Werner Alpers, Jen-Ping Chen, I-I. Lin, and Chun-Chi Lien

clear indication that the front visible on the ERS-1 SAR image is of atmospheric origin. Note that the cloud band closely follows the coastline, which is a clear indication that it has its origin in an interaction of the atmosphere with the island. On both days the sky was almost cloud free such that the low-land coastal areas could be heated up by solar radiation. Evidence of this is also provided by the infrared image depicted in Fig. 11 . If we assume that the meteorological conditions were

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J. Roads, S. Chen, M. Kanamitsu, and H. Juang

1. Introduction The World Meteorological Organization’s Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) is under way. The overall objectives of the multiagency GCIP program, which is being led by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, are to increase scientific understanding of the hydrologic and energy cycles involved in the complex land–atmosphere–ocean interactions in the Mississippi River basin. Macroscale hydrological models, high

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Peter J. Webster

cycle is considered does the model produce variations which resemble the observedstructures. Mechanisms are traced to include the interaction of the components of the total heating function.The sensible heat input in the bounda~ layer, although considerably smaller than the other heating components,destabilizes the atmosphere ahead of the ascending zone allowing the moist convective heating component tomove northward slightly ahead of the band of precipitation. The poleward encroachment of these

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Yi-Hung Kuo, J. David Neelin, and C. Roberto Mechoso

and Zhang 1997 ; Parsons et al. 2000 ; Redelsperger et al. 2002 ; Ridout 2002 ). The cloud-resolving model (CRM) and single-column model simulations confirmed the sensitivity of moist convection to lower-free-tropospheric humidity ( Derbyshire et al. 2004 ). In the case of weak vertical wind shear, further CRM studies demonstrated that water vapor in the lower atmosphere is more critical for the onset of deep convection than sea surface temperature ( Tompkins 2001 ). Over daily and monthly time

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Shiyuan Zhong and J. C. Doran

that modeling studies based on idealized terrainand land-use configurations may tend to overestimate the effect of mesoscale fluxes on the temperature structurepredicted by coarse-resolution models applied to real world conditions. Even so, secondary circulations may besignificant for other boundary-layer properties, such as mixed-layer depth and cloud formation.1. Introduction The problem of scale interactions in the planetaryboundary layer (PBL), that is, how forcing mechanisms with differing

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Richard E. Young, Richard L. Walterscheid, Gerald Schubert, Alvin Seiff, Vyatcheslav M. Linkin, and Alexander N. Lipatov

theVEGA lander, the mean zonal wind profile will betaken as the zonal wind profile obtained by the PioneerVenus sounder probe (Counselman et al., 1980). Justification for associating the Pioneer Venus wind datawith the VEGA lander data comes from the fact thatthe thermodynamic state of the atmosphere as measured by the VEGA lander is very similar to that measured by the PV sounder probe, and the mean zonalwind determined from Doppler tracking of the twoVEGA balloons (Preston et al., 1986) is within 6

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