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Jeannette Sutton, Sarah C. Vos, Michele M. Wood, and Monique Turner

hazard including a description of physical characteristics of the threat, as well as its potential impact and effects ( Covello 1998 ; Drabek 1999 ; Mileti and Peek 2000 ). Warning messages should also provide guidance , which includes information about the actions people need to take to increase their safety ( Lindell and Perry, 1992 ; Mileti and Sorensen 1990 ). Public warning messages must also identify the location of the threat, including the geographical and physical boundaries ( Greene et

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Caroline Mwongera, Joseph Boyard-Micheau, Christian Baron, and Christian Leclerc

1. Introduction Crop genetic diversity is a key factor for long-term viability and adaptation to changing environmental conditions ( Hammer and Teklu 2008 ). It prevents crop failure ( Altieri 1994 ; Vandermeer 1989 ), contributes to more resilient systems, and limits susceptibility to pests and diseases ( Tonhasca and Byrne 1994 ). A wide gene pool is essential for world food security and, as a source of materials for breeding new plant varieties, to mitigate current and future production

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Hannah R. Torres, Kamal A. Alsharif, and Graham A. Tobin

occur at much smaller spatial and temporal scales. However, impacts to climate-related extremes, like hurricanes, can “reveal significant vulnerability and exposure of some ecosystems and many human systems to current climate variability” ( IPCC 2014a , p. 7). Our research draws from the theoretical works of Adger et al. (2009) and Abramson et al. (2015) , using focus groups to assess qualitatively the following questions: 1) How can climate adaptation and disaster resilience be constrained by

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Johnathan W. Sugg

boundaries ( Hagenauer and Helbich 2013 ). These factors must be weighed in the interpretation since both the SOM and the cluster algorithms ultimately force an observation to join a particular node and cluster, and any changes to parameters will likely result in different versions of a similar pattern ( Budayan et al. 2009 ). c. Significance and implications for future research During the decade of study (2008–18), the rhetoric around climate change arguably shifted to the extremes ( Hulme 2019 ). As

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Emily D. Esplin, Jennifer R. Marlon, Anthony Leiserowitz, and Peter D. Howe

protective behaviors during extreme heat. Results could inform heat risk communication and prevention efforts to build resilience in vulnerable areas as more heat events occur. 2. Background Current research indicates that heat waves in the United States are occurring more often, becoming more intense, and lasting longer ( Akompab et al. 2013 ; Vose et al. 2017 ; Sampson et al. 2013 ; White-Newsome et al. 2011 ). The United States may be particularly vulnerable to this trend because population growth

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Nathan Beech and Micah J. Hewer

Northern Hemisphere and the 30th and 45th parallels in the Southern Hemisphere ( van Leeuwen and Darriet 2016 ), with average growing season (GS) temperatures typically falling between 12° and 22°C ( Jones and Schultz 2016 ). Nevertheless, exceptions to these ranges can be found with both cooler and warmer conditions, and anthropogenic climate change has already pushed the latitudinal boundaries poleward ( Jones and Schultz 2016 ). Temperature extremes such as freeze damage during the dormant and

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Abby Halperin and Peter Walton

1. Introduction The question of what motivates people to take action on climate change is increasingly important with the abundant evidence that mitigation and adaptation are needed ( IPCC 2014 ). However, not enough is being done to meet the Paris Agreement’s goals ( UNFCCC 2015 ) with countries’ current pledges ( Climate Action Tracker 2015 ). Even if these mitigation targets are met, the public needs to be prepared for some warming ( Evans et al. 2014 ). Public support is critical in meeting

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Amanda E. Cravens, Jamie McEvoy, Dionne Zoanni, Shelley Crausbay, Aaron Ramirez, and Ashley E. Cooper

long history of human modification, making meteorological, hydrological, environmental, and social drivers and outcomes of drought difficult to tease apart ( Van Loon et al. 2016 ; Dunham et al. 2018 ). How a drought is perceived or experienced can vary from person to person, even in the same location ( Kohl and Knox 2016 ). Adding to this complexity, drought crosses sectors, regions, and even national boundaries, often causing impacts far afield ( Wilhite and Vanyarkho 2000 ). While many scholars

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Alexander G. Keul, Bernhard Brunner, John Allen, Katie A. Wilson, Mateusz Taszarek, Colin Price, Gary Soleiman, Sanjay Sharma, Partha Roy, Mat Said Aini, Abu Bakar Elistina, Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab Kadir, and Chandima Gomes

that the distinction between variables is clear for survey participants, especially following translation of survey instruments. This points to the need for an interdisciplinary team of both natural and social scientists, as was the case in the ISWS survey. Important differences were noted between the country samples for the quality of severe weather information for laypeople, influencing weather knowledge and thereby potential fears and preparedness. The social boundary conditions with regard to

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Sally Potter, Sara Harrison, and Peter Kreft

2015 ; Met. Int. C). This can lead to a perception of overwarning (a higher number of warnings issued with little resulting impact, potentially increasing warning fatigue) or underwarning (warnings not issued due to thresholds being higher than those that result in impacts, potentially resulting in the perception that the event was unwarned or “missed”) (Met. Int. A). Thus, participants indicated that impact-based thresholds for warnings would be better than current “arbitrary” hazard

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