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Yun Qiu, Weiqing Han, Xinyu Lin, B. Jason West, Yuanlong Li, Wen Xing, Xiaolin Zhang, K. Arulananthan, and Xiaogang Guo

used for temperature and salinity diffusion, with u d set to be 0.001 m s −1 for Laplacian diffusion. Since this study focuses on the upper-ocean processes under TC Phailin forcing, we analyze the results from the following experiments ( Table 1 ). First, we analyze the Main Run (MR), which includes all forcing fields and is the most complete solution in the hierarchy; the MR was forced by daily ASCAT wind, TMI precipitation, shortwave and longwave radiation (SWR and LWR) from the Clouds and the

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Albert J. Semtner Jr.

important component of a more general model. There is some indication now that much of theseasonal variation in sea ice extent can be accounted forby thermodynamics alone. In a recent study by Washington e! al. (1976), the simple thermodynamic modelproposed in the Appendix of this paper was used withobserved forcing to predict reasonable seasonal variation of sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans. Theresults indicate that a pure thermodynamic ice modelmay be adequate for use in climate modelling

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Klaus Wyrtki

.0022-3670/79/061223-09506.25c 1979 American Meteorological Societyverify how well the 1976 event followed thesuggested scenario.2. The wind field To discuss the atmospheric forcing, knowledge ofthe wind field for the period 1974-77 is required.Unfortunately, the wind observations made by merchant ships during this period are not yet availablein a systematically collected and edited form and,consequently, one has to rely on the observationsat Christmas and Canton Islands, shown in Fig. 1.In addition, cloud motion as

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Harry G. Stumpf and Richard V. Legeckis

Suitland, Md., for further processing. More detailed descriptions of the NOAA polarsatellite system are contained in ~NOAA technicalpublications (Schwalb, 1972; Fortuna and Hambrick,1974; Koffler, 1976).3. Data' Both visible and thermal infrared (IR) data receivedfrom the VHRR can be displayed as images by usinggray-scale values appropriate to the measured radiances.In the IR displa~ the relatively cold clouds, snow andice are shown in light tones (less radiant energy reachingthe radiometer) and warmer

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Sonya Legg and John Marshall

sense in the surface layer, anticyclonic below, driving a cold baroclinic vortex. Theconvection site is imagined to be made up of many such baroclinic vortices, each with a vertically homogeneouscore carrying cold, convectively tainted waters. The point vortices are introduced at a rate that depends on thelarge-scale cooling and the intensity assumed for each vortex. The interaction of many cold baroelinic vortices,making up a cloud, is studied using point-vortex Green's function techniques. The

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Sarah R. Dewey, James H. Morison, and Jinlun Zhang

each latitude for all months. (The mean R 2 value for all of these monthly fits is 0.82, and the median is 0.92.) These arrays correlate significantly (>95%) at a 2-month lag with the monthly AO index ( Fig. 4a ), indicating that large-scale atmospheric processes do in fact control the overall shape of salinity across the gyre but that the oceanic response to atmospheric forcing is delayed. The sign of the correlation between the northward salinity gradient and AO is negative to the south and

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Sally J. Warner, Ryan M. Holmes, Elizabeth H. M. Hawkins, Martín S. Hoecker-Martínez, Anna C. Savage, and James N. Moum

(1996) presents a more detailed study of the same set of observations that highlights the strong downward vertical velocity associated with the front, reaching almost 1 cm s −1 , and the advection–pressure gradient force balance, suggesting that the front propagated as a gravity current. However, he also suggested that the front (characterized by a 1.5°C surface temperature change over ~1 km) must be embedded in a larger-scale geostrophically balanced flow for which the Coriolis force is important

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Anand Gnanadesikan and Robert A. Weller

. For somerealistic conditions, the Ekman spiral predicted by assuming small-scale diffusion alone is strongly unstable toLangmnir cells driven by wave-current interaction. In the Northern Hemisphere, these cells are oriented to theright of the wind, the result of a balance between maximizing the wave-current forcing, maximizing the efficiency of this forcing in producing cells, and minimizing the crosscell shear. The cells are capable of replacingsmall-scale turbulent diffusion as the principal

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Weiqing Han, Peter J. Webster, Jia-Lin Lin, W. T. Liu, Rong Fu, Dongliang Yuan, and Aixue Hu

the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project flux data (ISCCP-FD; Zhang et al. 2004 ), and National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ) air temperature and specific humidity are used as surface forcing fields for HYCOM. Precipitation is from the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) pentad data ( Xie and Arkin 1996 ), which is interpolated to daily resolution before

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Jinlun Zhang, Rebecca Woodgate, and Richard Moritz

1970 to 2008. The reanalysis forcing consists of surface winds, SAT, specific humidity, precipitation, evaporation, downwelling longwave radiation, and cloud fraction. SAT and cloud fraction are used to calculate downwelling shortwave radiation following Parkinson and Washington (1979) . Model forcing also includes river runoff of freshwater in the Bering and Arctic Seas. For the Bering Sea, monthly climatological runoffs of the Anadyr, Yukon, and Kuskokwim Rivers are used (see Table 1 for

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