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Klaus Wyrtki

.0022-3670/79/061223-09506.25c 1979 American Meteorological Societyverify how well the 1976 event followed thesuggested scenario.2. The wind field To discuss the atmospheric forcing, knowledge ofthe wind field for the period 1974-77 is required.Unfortunately, the wind observations made by merchant ships during this period are not yet availablein a systematically collected and edited form and,consequently, one has to rely on the observationsat Christmas and Canton Islands, shown in Fig. 1.In addition, cloud motion as

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Harry G. Stumpf and Richard V. Legeckis

Suitland, Md., for further processing. More detailed descriptions of the NOAA polarsatellite system are contained in ~NOAA technicalpublications (Schwalb, 1972; Fortuna and Hambrick,1974; Koffler, 1976).3. Data' Both visible and thermal infrared (IR) data receivedfrom the VHRR can be displayed as images by usinggray-scale values appropriate to the measured radiances.In the IR displa~ the relatively cold clouds, snow andice are shown in light tones (less radiant energy reachingthe radiometer) and warmer

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Kai Håkon Christensen, Ann Kristin Sperrevik, and Göran Broström

for this variability. Our focus is on the response to the large-scale wind forcing in the Skagerrak, which is associated with Ekman transport across the Skagerrak and upwelling and downwelling along the Norwegian and Danish coasts. We use the four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) analysis scheme in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), assimilating satellite sea surface temperature and in situ salinity and temperature from a variety of sources. The observations also include

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Yun Qiu, Weiqing Han, Xinyu Lin, B. Jason West, Yuanlong Li, Wen Xing, Xiaolin Zhang, K. Arulananthan, and Xiaogang Guo

used for temperature and salinity diffusion, with u d set to be 0.001 m s −1 for Laplacian diffusion. Since this study focuses on the upper-ocean processes under TC Phailin forcing, we analyze the results from the following experiments ( Table 1 ). First, we analyze the Main Run (MR), which includes all forcing fields and is the most complete solution in the hierarchy; the MR was forced by daily ASCAT wind, TMI precipitation, shortwave and longwave radiation (SWR and LWR) from the Clouds and the

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Albert J. Semtner Jr.

important component of a more general model. There is some indication now that much of theseasonal variation in sea ice extent can be accounted forby thermodynamics alone. In a recent study by Washington e! al. (1976), the simple thermodynamic modelproposed in the Appendix of this paper was used withobserved forcing to predict reasonable seasonal variation of sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans. Theresults indicate that a pure thermodynamic ice modelmay be adequate for use in climate modelling

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Jinlun Zhang, Rebecca Woodgate, and Richard Moritz

1970 to 2008. The reanalysis forcing consists of surface winds, SAT, specific humidity, precipitation, evaporation, downwelling longwave radiation, and cloud fraction. SAT and cloud fraction are used to calculate downwelling shortwave radiation following Parkinson and Washington (1979) . Model forcing also includes river runoff of freshwater in the Bering and Arctic Seas. For the Bering Sea, monthly climatological runoffs of the Anadyr, Yukon, and Kuskokwim Rivers are used (see Table 1 for

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Weiqing Han, Peter J. Webster, Jia-Lin Lin, W. T. Liu, Rong Fu, Dongliang Yuan, and Aixue Hu

the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project flux data (ISCCP-FD; Zhang et al. 2004 ), and National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ) air temperature and specific humidity are used as surface forcing fields for HYCOM. Precipitation is from the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) pentad data ( Xie and Arkin 1996 ), which is interpolated to daily resolution before

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Shenfu Dong, Janet Sprintall, and Sarah T. Gille

strongly influenced by water vapor and cloud cover, and about 45% of the data during their study period were missing. Moore et al. (1999a) suggested that both the Antarctic PF path and its properties show seasonal variability, although they also mentioned that the cloud cover itself has seasonal variability. Cloud cover leaves a number of open questions in the Moore et al. (1999a) analysis, suggesting that the topic merits revisiting using a dataset that is unimpeded by clouds. The recently

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L. D. Danny Harvey

atmosphereundergoes most of its temperature response with fixedseasonal ocean temperatures within the first few weeksof its one-year integration, with almost no further response thereafter. Consequently, the mean perturbations in the library fluxes or temperature differences,which are used to force the ocean during the next fiveyears, correspond to an effective atmosphere responsetime of only a few weeks rather than of one year. Thus,we are posed with the dilemma that we are constrainedto integrate the atmosphere

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Roger Lukas and Eric Firing

propagating windsystems. Ichiye (1959) investigated the response of asingle normal mode of an equatorial ocean to westward moving winds. He found that resonance of freeRossby waves with westward moving periodic windstress could occur and that this response is quitedifferent from that due to a transient wind system.(Weisberg and Tang, 1983, have since elaborated onthe baroclinic response to westward propagating transient wind forcing.) Wunsch (1977) studied the equatorial ocean response to westward

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